Rus değişmez hırsıyla yine Kafkasa girdi.
Malum emeli için Ermeniyi devşirdi.
Çeçeneli tümüyle figan evine döndü.
Azerbaycan yurdunda binlerce ocak söndü.
The conflict between the two South Caucasus countries began in 1988 when Armenia made territorial claims against Azerbaijan. Armenian armed forces have occupied 20 per cent of Azerbaijan since 1992, including the Nagorno-Karabakh region and seven surrounding districts.
Azerbaijan and Armenia signed a ceasefire agreement in 1994. The co-chairs of the OSCE Minsk Group, Russia, France and the U.S. are currently holding peace negotiations.
Armenia has not yet implemented the U.N. Security Council’s four resolutions on the liberation of the Nagorno-Karabakh and the surrounding regions.
04 Şubat 2014,
“Karabakh (Qarabagh) is one of the ancient region of Azerbaijan. The name of this integral part of Azerbaijan consists of two different Azerbaijani words: qara (black)and bagh (garden). The word qara has other meanings too in Azerbaijani and other Turkic languages, such as dense, thick, big and strong. The name of Karabakh may, therefore, mean black garden, large garden, dense garden, thick garden or picturesque garden.
The name Karabakh first occurred in the 7th century. Initially Karabakh was the name of a smaller historical and geographical area, but it was later applied to a wider geographical area. This is typical of Azerbaijan: Nakhchivan is the name both of the town of Nakhchivan and of the region as a whole; Shaki is the name of the town of Shaki and the region as a whole; Ganja is the name of the city of Ganja and the region as a whole; Lankaran of the town of Lankaran and the region as a whole; etc. when Karabakh is discussed, one of the first questions to arise concerns the location of Karabakh. What part of the Azerbaijan includes Karabakh?
silver coin of the Karabakh Khanate, 1785 Panahabad, Karabakh
Mirza Jamal Javanshir, ruler of Karabakh, wrote in his History of Karabakh: “According to ancient historical texts, the borders of Karabakh are: in the South the River Araz – from Hudafarin Bridge to Sinig Bridge. At present the population of Gazakh, Shasaddin and Damarchi – Hasanly lives near this bridge, for which the Russian Tatars use the Russian name, Krasniy Most, which is the Red Bridge. In the east the border is the Kur River, which flows into the Araz River at Javad village and on to the Caspian Sea. In the north the border is the Goran River, which flows from the Yelizavetpol (Ganja) border of Karabakh to the Kur River, down to the Araz River. In the west the border is the high mountains of Karabakh called Kusbak, Salvarti and Erikli.”
The name Karabakh did not apply only to the Mountainous (Nagornyy in Russian0 part of Karabakh, but also to the lowland part. In other words, the name Daghlig Karabakh (Mountainous Karabakh) is a product of later periods and a name given to one part of Karabakh as a result of separatist intentions. There is both Daghlig (mountainous) and Aran (lowland) Karabakh in Azerbaijan.
Karabakh has always been an integral part of all state formations of Azerbaijan. For a long period, the territory of Karabakh was part of a state in Northern Azerbaijan – the Kingdom of Caucasian Albania (not to be confused with Albania in the Balkans) which emerged in the 4th century AD. Later it was continuously part of other state formations ruled by Azerbaijani dynasties: the Sajids (9th to 10th centuries), the Salarids 910th century), the Shaddadids (10th -11th centuries), the Atabay-Eldanizids (12th-13th centuries), the Jalarilar (14th-15th centuries), the Qaraqoyunlu (15th century), the Aghqoyunlu (15th – 16th centuries) the Safavids (16th– 17th centuries) and foreign empires which included Azerbaijani territory such as the Arabian Caliphate (8th-9th centuries), Seljuk Empire 911th-12th centuries), Mongol Hulakis 913th-14 th centuries), and the Qajars (18th to 19 th centuries).
After the fall of the Arabian Caliphate, the princedoms of Sunik and Artsakh – Kachen were established in Karabakh in the 12th-13th centuries. In the late 12th century the Sunik princedom fell and dynastic rule ceased there after the deaths of Gregor and Smbat in 1166. The Khachen princedom that flourished on the territory of Artsakh was part of ancient Albania.
Gandzasar, general view ofthe complex, 13th century, Karabakh, Aghdara District
From the 0th to the early 13th century Azerbaijan grew stronger under the rule of the Sajids, Atabays and Shirvanshas. The Sajids and Atabays unified the historical lands of Azerbaijan. The Khachen princedom, established on former Albanian territory, reached its highest level of development during the reign of Hasan Jalal (1215-1261) of the Mehranis dynasty. Epigraphs found in monuments of the period describe him as the prince of the Khachen states, the mighty prince of the Khachen and Artsakh states and the ruler of Albania. One of the pearls of Albanian architecture – Gandzasar monastery – was built during this period. It is worth mentioning here, as an instance of the subordinate relationship between local rulers and their sovereigns, that in the 15th century Jahan, shah of the Qaraqoyunlu dynasty, granted the title of melik 9from the Arabic for owner, lord, posseeeor or ruler) to Hasan Jalal, the ruler of Karabkh, and his Jalalid dynasty. The land of the Jalalids was later divided into five Albanian feudal princedoms (Gulustan, Jeravert, Khachen, Varanda and Dizaq).
Different faiths and different political powers competed in the formation of the Azerbaijani nation. At the time of the adoption of Christianity in Azerbaijan in the 4th century AD, Azerbaijan was a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional environment. Until the 4th century the population of Caucasian Albania, being ethnically Azerbaijani, professed the religion of fire-worship, which consequently spread to Iran and developed into Zoroastrianism. Over the course of the historical development of Azerbaijan, Christianity and Islam prevailed at different times and, consequently (AD 313) as the state religion, some of the Azerbaijanis who refused to become Christians continued to worship fire. The chasm deepened when a considerable part of the population began to practise Islam. However, the auto cephalic Albanian Church, founded in the 6th to 7th centuries AD, continued to exist until its abolition in 1836 by the Russian Tsarist government.
Shusha, fortress walls
The Russian Empire, acting inn its own interests, used religion to gain influence in the region. To this end the independent Albanian Church was abolished on the Synod`s decision and the Albanian Patriarchate was subordinated to the Armenian Gregorian Church. The Armenian Church had grown from 1441 onwards after the Azerbaijani Qaraqoyunlu dynasty allowed the seat of the Armenian Patriarchate to be moved from Cilicia to Echmiadzin, near Irevan. The Christian population of Albania was gradually forced to join the Armenian Church.
Even when the local Caucasian Albanians of Karabakh embraced the Armenian Gregorian Church, some remained defiant and migrated to the left bank of the Kur River – their descendants still live in the Oghuz and Gabala districts of Azerbaijan.
The Safavid sate began the centralization of all the lands of Azerbaijan in 1501. The Safavid established four baylarbays or provinces in Azerbaijan including the Karabkh or Ganja province. In 1593 the Ganja-Karabakh province consisted of seven regions and 36 districts. Almost all the 1,300 placenames were of Azerbaijan origin. None were Armenian in origin.
After the Safavids weakened, Azerbaijan became the subject of wars between Iran, the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
During this period the land of Ganja-Karabakh was part of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman records shows the domination of Azerbaijanis among the region`s population. According to census figures, the population of the Ganja-Karabakh province was 122,000 people in 1727. Azerbaijanis accounted for 80,300 people (66 per cent), Armenians (orto be more exact Armenianized Albanians who had converted to Gregorianism) for 37,000 people (31 per cent) and Kurds for 3,700 people (3.1 per cent)
In 1909 and 1910 the Russian authorities connived with the Armenian Church to destroy local Albanian archives, including samples of Caucasian Albanian literature. The Russian historian V. L. Velichko deplored these actions in both Caucasian Albania and Georgia, which had something of a similar experience.
The history of Armenia also needs to be considered in order to understand better the appearance of the first ethnic Armenians in Azerbaijan in general and in Karabakh in particular.
From the middle ages to the end of May 1918, Armenia was as assumed territory, only a concept since there was no corresponding administrative entity. The territory known today as the Republic of Armenia was shaped through international agreements in 1920 and 1921 on the territory of Western Azerbaijan.
According to Armenian historians, the Armenian state was established in the 6th century BC In Asia Minor, albeit within the political control of Persian and then Roman overlords, until its demise in the 4th century AD. Then an Armenian kingdom was brought into existence in the 9th to 14th centuries AD. These developments all took place outside the Caucasus.
With the emergence of the Ottoman Empire, which resulted in the loss of hope for a sovereign state, some Armenians moved northwards into the Caucasian heartland, which included such Azerbaijani strongholds as Ganja and Zangezur.
From the 18th century onwards the Armenians gained an ally, Russia, which used them in its rivalry with the Ottoman and Persian empires. To ensure the success of its policy in the region, paying scant regard to the indigenous population`s right to their own lands, Russia endeavoured to remove the indigenous inhabitants from their homes, particularly in the Azerbaijani provinces of Karabakh and Zangezur. By 1805 Russia was engaged in negotiations with the war-weary local rulers, particularly Ibrahim Khalil-khan, the khan of (lord) of the Azerbaijani independent Karabakh Khanate (where the fortress in the capital Shusha was named Panahabad), and also with the lords of the Sheki and Shamakhi Khanates. Through military conquest, Russia annexed the rest of the local Azerbaijani principalities of Lankaran, Baku, Guba, Ganja, Derbent and, in 1826, the Azerbaijani Khanates of Nakhchivan and Irevan.
After the abolition of the Khanate, military rule was established in Karabakh, as in order region of the North Azerbaijan, and it was annexed to the Military-Muslim District which had its centre in Shusha. The tsarist government was influenced by the 1830th revolts and conducted administrative and political reform in the South Caucasus. On 10 April 1840 Karabakh was turned into the Shusha Region and placed under the supervision of the Caspian Province which had its centre in Shamakhi. Thus, the concept of Karabakh lost its political meaning and was preserved merely as a geographic area.
During the administrative division of 1846, the Shusha region was subordinated to the newly established Shamakhi Province and from 1859 to Baku. In 1867, with the creation of the Yelizavetpol (Ganja) Province, the Shusha region was put under its administration and three more districts – Zangezur, Javanshir and Jabrayil – were created there. In this way the Shusha region also lost its unique administrative-political meaning.
Russia had an interest in establishing a fellow Christian population of Armenians on the border of its empire, a buffer against the local Azerbaijani Khanates struggling to maintain their independence.
Under the Edirne Treaty of 1829 Armenians started to move from the Ottoman Empire to the newly occupied lands of North Azerbaijan. Armenians mainly moved to Karabakh.
The ethnic composition of the Karabakh Khanate at the time of its abolition was recorded on the instructions of A.P. Yermolov, the commander-in-chief of Russian troops in the Caucasus. In spite of the policy of Armenianization, carried out before the record was drawn up (1805-22), most of the Karabakh population had remained Azerbaijanis since 1593.
In Yermolov`s Description, 15,729 of 20,095 families in Karabakh were Azerbaijani (1,111 urban and 14,618 rural), while 4,366 families were Armenian, including Albanian (421 urban and 3,945 rural). Most of these Armenians were Gregoriyanized an Armenianized Albanians. New Armenian villages such as Maragali and Janyatag began to appear in Karabakh as the results of the mass resettlement of Armenians to the province. (Some time later Armenians erected monuments recording their resettlement to Karabakh, but destroyed them during their territorial claims against Azerbaijan in the 1980s.
In 1820-30 alone, in accordance with the Treaty of Turkmenchay, the Russian imperial government settled about 130,000 Armenians from Iran and Turkey in the territories of the Azerbaijani Khanates, including more than 50,000 in Karabakh. When Russia conquered the South Caucasus, the notion of “Armenia”was not linked with a political, integral entity. Armenians were simply known as a Christian community among the Muslim majority within Azerbaijani states. Following the Treaty of Turkmenchay, however, Russia created a new administrative unit and called it the Armenian Region (Oblast), despite the Armenians constituting the minority. It included the Irevan, Nakhchivan and Ordubad districts of Azerbaijan. The Armenian Region was abolished in 1849 and replaced with the Irevan Governorate, in accordance with the structure of the administrative-territorial divisions within the Russian Empire.
From the 19th century onwards the Armenians, despite their military and political weakness, tried to set a political agenda of their own (with the ultimate goal of creating an independent Armenian state) and to gain the utmost from the rivalry of the Great Powers in Anatolia and the South Caucasus. Between the Congress of Berlin and the San Stefano Conference in 1878 and the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the emergence of the “Armenian Question” gave rise to conflict. During that time, 500,000 Armenians were resettled with Russian acquiescence from Iran and Turkey to the historical lands of Azerbaijan.
The ambitions of Armenian ultra-nationalists, intent on creating their own states at the expense of Azerbaijan, played into the hands of the Russian overlords, creating a coincidence of interests. These shared policies continued into the Soviet period.
The February and October Revolutions of 1917 in Russia marked a new stage in the “Armenian Question”. In October 1917 the Armenian Congress convened in Tiflis (now Tbilisi, the capital city of Georgia) and demanded the annexation by Russia of Eastern Turkey, occupied by Russian Army during the First World War. On 31 December of the same year, the Council of People`s Commissars adopted a decree, signed by Lenin and Stalin, on the right to self-determination of “Turkish Armenia”
On 28 May 1918, the first democratic state in the Muslim world, namely the Azerbaijani Democratic Republic, was established. One of the first steps taken by the government of the new country was to yield on the following day, 29 May 1918, the city of Irevan (as stated earlier, the capital of the former Azerbaijani Irevan Khanate) to the Republic of Armenia, which had declared its independence one day prior to Azerbaijan, on 27 May 1918, but which as yet had no political centre. The territory of the Republic of Armenia at the time was limited to Echmiadzin, Alexandropol and parts of the New Bayazid and Irevan districts, both with 50 per cent Azerbaijani populations.
Following the entry of British forces into Baku 1918, General Thompson, who represented the Allied Powers, recognized Mountainous Karabakh together with the neighbouring Zangezur district under the administration of Azerbaijan. He confirmed the Azerbaijani government`s appointment of Khosrov Sultanov as governor of the Karabakh General-Governorship, of which these two regions were part. In 1919 the Armenian Assembly of Mountainous Karabakh recognized officially the authority of Azerbaijan.
Nevertheless, the Armenian government, led by the Dashnak party 9the Dashnaktsutyun), claimed from Azerbaijan the territories of Nakhchivans, Zangezur and Karabakh, and this led to war between Azerbaijan and Armenian in 1918-20. Thousands of Azerbaijanis were killed on the battlefield and in massacres committed by Dashnak-led Armenians and Bolsheviks in nearly all the main towns of Azerbaijan. This conflict seriously undermined the struggle of Azerbaijan and the other states of the region to maintain their independence and sovereignty.
The Armenian Dashnak government continued to wage war in the same areas of Karabakh, Nakhchivan and Zangezur until November 1920, when the entire Dashnak government was overthrown by Soviet Russia. This did not, however, lead to a solution of the territorial dispute.
The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic continued to press the sae territorial claims as its predecessors. Responding to these demands, the Caucasus Bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party decided at its meeting of 5 July 1921 that: “Taking into consideration the necessity of national peace between the Muslims and the Armenians, the importance of the economic relations between Upper Karabakh with Azerbaijan, Mountainous Karabakh shall be retained within the boundaries of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Azerbaijan and broad autonomy shall be given to Mountainous Karabakh with the city of Shusha as its administrative centre.”
In 1922 the Azerbaijani Soviet Socialist Republic was absorbed into the USSR and by a decision of July 1923, the Soviet Azerbaijan Central Executive Committee created for Mountainous Karabakh the status of autonomous region (the NKAO or Mountainous Karabakh Autonomous Oblast), a legal entity within the Azerbaijani SSR. The administrative centre of the NKAO was moved from Shusha to Khankandi (whose name was changed to Stepanakert later in the same year by Armenians to honour Stepan Shaumian, a well-known Armenian Bolshevik). The administrative divisions of Mountainous Karabakh were drawn artificially so as to ensure an Armenian majority in this ethnically mixed region. Official tsarist population records indicate that the population of Karabakh was overwhelmingly Muslim prior to the mass migration of Armenians (numbering more than 50,000) from Iran under the Treaty of Turkmenchay which ended the Russo-Persian War of 1826-28. Those who retained their Christian faith were not ethnic Armenian majority that emerged in this way was used as the basis for the artificial creation of an Armenian entity.
Chingiz Mustafayev (1960-1992)
He was one of Azerbaijan`s most noted journalists, even though most of his work spans less than ayear. With no rormal journalistic training, he created a video anthology of the Karabakh war between Armenian and Azerbaijan- an incalculable contribution documenting the brutality of a war that ultimately claimed his own life. He was killed on 15 June 1992 during the war. He was declared a National Hero of Azerbaijan.
The policy of the Soviet Union was far from even –handed. Several points have to be made, here. For example, in contrast with the NKAO and its 138,600 Armenian and 47,500 Azerbaijani population (1989), neither the central government of the USSR nor the Armenian SSR had ever considered the possibility of granting even some status of cultural autonomy to the 300,000 Azerbaijanis residing compactly to Armenia (given the fact that Azerbaijan`s population at the time was seven million in comparison to Armenia`s three million). Moreover, many of them were forcibly deported from Armenia, particularly in 1948-50. Ethnic cleansing of all Azerbaijanis from Armenia was finalized in 1988-89.
Armenian expansionist ambitions, so skilfully exploited by the central authorities in Moscow to create havoc in the regions, eventually led in the late 1980s to the terrible aggression and calamity, which has blighted the whole area for more than a decade. On 1 December 1989, the Supreme Soviet Of Armenia adopted a resolution on the unification of Mountainous Karabakh with Armenia. This resolution has never been rejected by the authorities of independent Armenia and can be interpreted as Armenia`s official claim to Azerbaijani territory. On 26 November 1991 the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan adopted a law abolishing the resolution.
One-eighth of Azerbaijanis are now refugees or displaced person, driven from Mountainous Karabakh or their homes in the surrounding areas or from Armenia. When Armenians had occupied Mountainous Karbakh (the former Mountainous Karabakh Autonomous Oblast) and seven surrounding Azerbaijani districts, in 1992-93 they committed unprecedented atrocities in these territories and ethnic cleansing. On 12 May 1994 a cease-fire agreement between the conflicting sides entered into force. Since 1992 the OSCE`s Minsk Group has been tasked with helping to resolve the conflict. In 1993 the UN Security Council adopted four resolutions (822, 853, 874, and 884) condemning the occupation of Azerbaijani territories by Armenian forces and demanding their immediate and unconditional withdrawal from the occupied territories. In March 2008 the UN General Assembly adopted another resolution on the situation in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan. The resolution reaffirms the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan and demands the withdrawal of all Armenian forces from the occupied territories.
Neither history nor oppression can justify the Armenian territorial claims, which led to the conflict. The government of Azerbaijan is, therefore, committed to seeking a peaceful solution to the tragic conflict and to the elimination of all its consequences including, first of all, the withdrawal of troops from all the occupied territories and the return of the Azerbaijani population to their homes.“
Azerbaijan,100 questions and answer, CBS, 2005.
State Committee: Maintenance of Albanian-Udi church is priority issue for Azerbaijani government
Maintenance of the Albanian-Udi church is one of the priority issues for the government of Azerbaijan. This was stated at the festival “The tenth anniversary of the revival” dedicated to the 1700th anniversary of the adoption of Christianity as the official state religion in Caucasian Albania and the 10th anniversary of the revival of the Albanian-Udi church, which was held in Nij village of Gabala region with the support of the State Committee for Work Religious Organizations and the Albanian-Udi Christian community.
The Azerbaijani government has always supported the Albanian-Udi church, which is one of the oldest religions of the country, holding numerous events for the international recognition of the heritage of Caucasian Albania, head of the department of religious expertise, public relations and analysis of the State Committee Agil Shirinov say at the event.
“Maintenance of the Albanian-Udi church is one of the priority issues for the government of Azerbaijan. Over the last year, the State Committee for Work with Religious Organizations has undertaken a great deal of work for the recognition of this heritage. Activities in this direction will be continued in the future. In the near future we plan to publish a book on the history of the Apostolic Autocephalous Church of Albania, hold a conference on the international level on the Caucasian Albania and organize a photo exhibition of the world-renowned photographer Reza Diggeti, reflecting Albanian religious and cultural monuments, at the UNESCO level,” the department head said.
According to Shirinov, for years, Armenians have been trying to appropriate the material and spiritual heritage of the churches of Caucasian Albania, but Azerbaijan will not allow it, and this lie will be fully suppressed.
Worldwide recognition of the Church of Caucasian Albania as the ancient Apostolic Church, belonging to Azerbaijan, will stop attempts of appropriation of this heritage by the Armenians. Thanks to the efforts of the Azerbaijani state, the general public is informed of the fact that this ancient church belongs to Azerbaijan as well as the fact that its representatives continue to live here today,” Shirinov said.
3 August 2013
HOCALI SOYKIRIMI – KHOJALY GENOCİDE
Ermeninin tutumu cinnetti, cinayetti.
Savunmasız halkı kadın, çocuk demeden
vurdu, kesti, kirletti.
Göz oydu, karın deşti, toptan ateşe attı.
Yer yer yangın çıkardı. Pek çok ocak söndürdü.
Vatanın harimini viraneye döndürdü.
Ermeni teröristler adeta insan değil
Birer yırtıcı ifrit, lanetlenmiş şeytandı.
The Armenian military forces committed genocide in Khojaly on Feb. 26, 1992. Some 613 people were killed, including 63 children, 106 women and 70 old men. A total of 1,000 civilians were disabled during the genocide. Eight families were annihilated, 130 children lost one parent, and 25 lost both. Additionally, 1,275 peaceful residents were taken hostage, while the fate of 150 remains unknown.
ARMENIAN ARE WRITING WRONG HISTORY, WITH EXAGGERATIONS. SO -CALLED ARMENIAN GENOCIDE DID NOT TAKE PLACE. IT NEVER HAPPEND.WHY SHOULD WORLD LEARN ABOUT ARMENIAN LIES AND AN INVENTED HISTORY. GENOCIDE OF AZERI TURKS TOOK PLACE IN KHOJALI (1992) AND BAKU IN 1918 BY ARMENIANS.
AZERBAIJANI TURKS MUST ALWAYS BE ON THEIR GUARD. AZERBAIJANI TURKS KILLED BY ARMENIAN AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20 CENTURY. WE FORGOT IT AND BECAME FRIENDS. THEY DID GENOCIDE AGAIN IN KHOJALI.
KHOJALY MEMORIAL IN THE HAGUE, THE NETHERLANDS
THEY MUST NOT REMAIN UNPUNISHED
The data has been received from unofficial sources, including eyewitnesses of the tragic events and independent experts. Although the events of Khojali in the early hours of 26th of February 1992 are significant enough to be categorized as genocide under international legal documents defining the crime of genocide, the people on the list so far remain unpunished due to the scarcity of information and circumstances of political nature. However, on the basis of the data already available, Azerbaijan`s law-enforcement agencies have identified those suspected of war crimes and crimes against humanity and sent their name to Interpol to be put on the International Wanted List. At the same time, this list is not complete. There are enough grounds to include on it several more people who have subsequently held senior public posts. They are the former and incumbent Armenian presidents, Robert Kocharyan and Serzh Sarkisyan, the current Minister of Defence Seyran Oganyan and a few others. The people of Azerbaijan believe that there will come a time when those guilty of atrocities against innocent civilians will face international tribunal and receive the punishment they deserve.
LIST OF THOSE ACCUSED OF THE KHOJALI GENOCIDE
NAME AND BIOGRAPHICAL DETAILS
- Petrosian Karo Vanoevich, born in 1958 in the village of Khramort in AskeranDistrict of NKAR (Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region), Armenian, married, worked as head of a fire fighting department the Askeran DAIA ( District Administration of Intrenal Affairs)
- Abramian Armo Aramovich, born 29.09.1935 in Khojali District of NKAR, Armenian, married, with higher education, worked as head of the CAIA (City Administration of Internal Affairs) of Khankendi, lived in Khankendi.
- Barsegian Shagen Semenovich, born in 14.11.1928 in Khojavand District of NKAR, married, with higher education, worked as deputy head of the Askeran DAIA.
- Beglarian Armen Volodievich, born in 1955 in Aghdara District of NKAR, Armenian, married, with higher education, worked as senior technician of the 1st company of the 366th regiment of the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) Armed Forces.
- Kisebekian Grigoriy Akopovich, born 1957 in Aghdara District of NKAR, Armenian, married wirh gigher education, was commander of a company of signallers of the 366th regiment, lived in Khankendi.
- Arutynian Slavik Vadimovich, born in 1965 in Khankendiin NKAR, Armenian, married, with higher education, was commander of the 5th company of the 366th regiment, lived in Khankendi.
- Ishkhanian Andrey Artushevich, born in 1946, in Aghdara District of NKAR, Armenian, single, with secondary education, was commander of a supply platoon of the 1st company of the 366th regiment, lived in Khankendi.
- Beglarian Sergey Yurikovich, born in 1965, in Khojavand District of NKAR, Armenian, single, with higher education, was commander of a platoon of the 2nd battalion of the 366th regiment, lived in Khankendi.
- Arutyunian Kamo Rafaelovich, born in Khojavand District of NKAR, Armenian, single, with secondary education, was commander of a platoon of the 366th regiment, lived in Khankendi.
- Danielian Armen Borikovich, born in 1965 in Khojavand District of NKAR, Armneian, single, with secondary education, was commander of a platoon of the 366th regiment, lived in Khankendi.
- Mirzoian Vachik Gratovich, born in 1962 in Khankendi in NKAR, Armenian, single, with secondary education, was a sergeant major of the 2nd company of the 366th regiment, lived in Khankendi.
- Ayrapetian Vachik Gurgenovich, born in 1961 in Khojavand District of NKAR, Armenian, single, with secondary education, was sergeant major of the 3rd company of the 366th regiment, lived in Khankendi.
- Ayrapetian Aleksandr Aleksandrovich, born in 1964 District of NKAR, Armenian, single, with secondary education, was warrant officer of the 366th regiment, lived in Khankendi.
- Akopian Oleg Nikolavich, born in 1965 and lived in the village of Gasanabad in Askeran District of NKAR, Armenian, single, with secondary education, was a member of the Gasanabad state farm.
- Tumasian Seyran Aprakovich, born in 1952 and lived in the village of Khasg of Askeran District of NKAR, Armenian, married, has secondary education, worked as driver in Khasg village.
- Kocharian Serjik Sumbatovich, born in 1952 and live in Khankendi inNKAR, Armenian, married, with higher education, lieutenant-colonel, worked as head of a municipal prison in Khankendi.
- Babaian Georgiy Ginikovich, born in 1957 and lived in the village of Gasanabad in Askeran District of NKAR, Armenian, married, with secondary education, worked as driver at the Gasanabad state farm.
- Balasanian Vitaliy Mikhaylovich, born in1965 and lived in Khankendi in NKAR, Armenian, married, with secondary education, was chairman of a local section of the Armenian National Front.
- Grigorian Ararat Rantikovich, born in 1957 and lived in Askeran District of NKAR, worked ar the Askeran DAIA.
- Grigorian Jambulad Khanlarovich, born in 1963 and lived in Khankendi.
- Babaian Bakhadur Ginikovich, born in 1932 in Askeran District.
- Kagramanian Khamlet Asrievich, born in 1961 and lived in Askeran District.
- Grigorian Edik Emirvarovich, born in 1959 and lived in skeran District, worked in the Askeran DAIA.
- Mangasarian Artik Gurgenovich, born in 1969 and lived in Askeran District.
- Ishkhanian Yuriy Georgievich, born in 1947 and lived in Khankendi of NKAR, worked as manager of a canteen at the Askeran District Industrial Union.
- Grigorian Valerik Sergeevich, born in 1963 and lived in the village of Gasanabad in Askeran District of NKAR, Armenian, married, with secondary education, was a member of the Gasanabad state farm.
- Chitchian Valeriy Isaakovich, born 14.02.1956 in the village of Chirachidzar in Khanlar District of Azerbaijan, Armenian, was head of reconnaissance of the 1st battalion of the 366th regiment.
- Ayrian Vachagan Grigorevich, born 09.08.1952 in Baku, Armenian, was head of reconnaissance of the 366th regiment.
- Zarvigorov Yuriy Yurrevich, born 02.03.1955 in the Lugov Jambul Region of Kazakhstan, Russian, married, with higher education, has no previous convictions.
- Gukasian Mavrik Araratovich, born 07.01.1956 in the village of Chartaz of NKAR, Armenian, married,with higher education, worked from 25 December 1990 as head of the Askeran DAIA, lived in Khankendi.
- Agajanian Karlen Levonovich, born 20.12.1938 in Goranboy District of Azerbaijan, Armenian, married, with higher education, worked from 05.04.1963 to 04.09.1990 in the internal affairs authority of NKAR.
- Ayrian Samvel Samurkaevich, born in 1960, lived in the village of Noragukh in Askeran District of NKAR, Armenian, worked, in the Askeran DAIA.
- Garmash Viktor Anatolievich, born 02.01.1967 in the village of Zadvore in the Bussko District of the Lvov Region of the Ukrain.
- Smagin Alesandr Vladimirovich, born 04.10.1968
- Baliazin Oleg Viktorovich, born 08.01.1970 in the Shuchye Lake Settlement, Oktyabr District, Perm Region of the Russian Federation.
- Akopian Movses Grantovich, born 04.02.1965 in the village of Gunne-Kaler in Matuni District of NKAR, Armenian, was commander of the 2nd platoon of the 1st battalion of the 366th regiment.
- Mirzoian Aksim Mikhailovich, born 19.07.1947 in Khankendi in NKAR, Armeian, with higher education, worked as head of the 2718th transport depot in this town.
- Abramian Pogos Garnushevich, born in 1955 and lived in Khankendi in NKAR, Armenian, married, with higher education.
IRS-HERITAGE, WINTER 2010.
WORLD VIEW OF THE KHOJALY GENOCIDE
THE JOURNALISTS WHILE MEETING WITH THE KHOJALY INHABITANTS
The Washington Post, 28 February 1992
NAGORNY КARAKAKH VICTIMS BURIED IN AZERВAIJANI TOWN-REFUGEES CLAIM HUNDREDS DIED IN ARMENIAN АТТАСК
Ву Thomas GOLTZ, Agdam, Azerbaijan, 27 February
Officials of the main mosque in this town east of the embattled enclave of Daghlig Garabagh said they buried 17 bodies today, brought from an Azerbaijani town inside the enclave that was captured Wednesday bу Armenian militiamen.
Refugees fleeing the fighting in Khojaly, а town of 6,000 northeast of the enclave’s capital, Stepanekert, claimed that up to 500 people, including women and children, were killed in the attack. No independent estimate the death was available here. Тhе Agdam mosque’s director, Said Sadikov Muan, said refugees from Khojaly had registered the names of 477 victims with his mosque since Wednesday
Officials in Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan, estimated the deaths in Khojaly at 100, while Armenian officials in their capital, Yerevan, said only two Azerbaijanis were killed in the attack. An official from Baku said here that his government fears Azerbaijanis would turn against it if they knew how many had been killed.
Of seven bodies seen here today, two were children and three were women, оnе shot through the chest at what appeared to bе close range. Another 120 refugees being treated at Agdam’s hospital include manу with multiple stab wounds.
The Armenians who attacked Khojaly Tuesday night “were shooting, shooting, shooting”, said Raisa Aslanova, who reached Agdam Wednesday night. She said her husband and а son-in-law were killed and her daughter was missing.
Among the refugees who fled here over the mountains from Daghlig Garabagh were two Turkmen soldiers from former Soviet Interior Ministry forces who had taken refuge in Khojaly after deserting from their unit last Friday because, they said, Armenians non-commissioned officers had beaten them “for being Muslims”.
The two deserters claimed their former unit, the 366th Division, was supporting the Armenian militiamen who captured Khojaly. They said they tried to help women and children escape. “We were bringing а group through the mountains when the Armenians found us and opened fire”, said Agamehmet Mutif, оnе of the deserters. “Twelve were killed”.
The Independent, 29 February 1992 Ву Helen Womack
Elif Каbаn, а REUTER correspondent in Agdam, reported that after а massacre оn Wednesday, Azeris were burying scores of people who died when Armenians overrun the town of Кhojaly, the second biggest settlement in the аrеa. “The world is turning it back оп what’s happening here. We аге dying and you аге just watching”, оnе mournеr shouted at а group of journalists.
The Sunday Тimes, 1 March 1992 ARMENIAN SOLDIERS MASSACRE HUNDREDS OF FLEEING FAMILIES Ву Thomas Goltz, Agdam, Azerbaijan
Survivors reported that Armenian soldiers shot and bayoneted mоrе than 450 Azeris, manу of them women, children. Hundreds, possibly thousands, were missing and feared dead.
The attackers killed most of the soldiers and volunteers defending the women and children. They then turned their guns оn the terrified refugees. The few survivors later described what happened: “That is when the real slaughter began”, said Azer Hajiyev, оnе of three soldiers to survive. “The Armenians just shot and shot. And they саmе in and started carving up people with their bayonets and knives”.
“They were shooting, shooting, shooting”, echoed Rasia Aslanova, who arrived in Agdam with other women and children who made their way through Armenian lines. She said her husband, Кауun, and son-in law were massacred in front of her. Her daughter was still missing.
One bоу who arrived in Agdam had an ear sliced off.
Тhе survivors said 2000 others, some of whom had fled separately, were still missing in the grueling terrain: manу could perish from their wounds or the cold.
Ву late yesterday, 479 deaths had been registered at the morgue in Agdam, and 29 bodies had been buried in the cemetery. Of the seven corpses I saw awaiting burial, two were children and three were women, one shot through the chest at а blank range.
Agdam hospital was а scene of carnage and terror. Doctors said they had 140 patients who escaped slaughter, most with bullet injuries and stab wounds.
Nor were they safe in Agdam. Оn Friday night rockets fell оn the city which has а population of 150,000 destroying several buildings and killing one person.
The Тimes, 2 March 1992 . CORPSES LITTER HILLS IN КARABAKH
Anatol Levin comes under fire while flying to investigate the mass killing of refugees bу Armenian troops.
As we swooped low over the snow-covered hills of Daghlig Garabagh we saw scattered corpses. Apparently, the refugees had been shot down as they ran. An Azerbaijani film of the place we flew over, shown to journalists afterwards, showed dozens of corpses lying in various parts of the hills
Тhе Azerbaijanis claim that as manу as 1000 have died in а mass killing of Azerbaijanis fleeing from the town of Кhojaly, seized bу Armenians last week. А further 4,000 are believed to bе wounded, frozen to death or missing.
Тhе civilian helicopter’s job was to land in the mountains and pick uр bodies at sites of the mass killings. Тhе civilian helicopter picked uр four corpses and it was during this and previous mission that an Azerbaijani cameraman filmed the several dozen bodies оn the hillsides.
Back at the airlifted in Aghdam, we took а look at the bodies the civilian helicopter had picked uр. Two old men and small girl were covered with blood, their limbs contorted by the cold and rigor mortis. Тhеу had been shot.
The Washington Тimes, 2 March 1992 ARMENIAN RAID LEAVES AZERIS DEAD OR FLEEING
About 1,000 of Кhojaly’s 10,000 people were massacred bу the Armenian Army in Tuesday’s attack. Azerbaijani television showed truckloads of corpses being evacuated from the Кhojaly area.
The New York Times, Tuesday, 3 March 1992 MASSACRE ВУ ARMENIANS
Aghdam, Azerbaijan, March 2 (Reuters)-Fresh evidence emerged today of а massacre of civilians bу Armenian militants in Daghlig Garabagh, а predominantly Armenian enclave of Azerbaijan.
Scalping Reported Azerbaijani officials and journalists who flew briefly to the region bу helicopter brought back three dead children with the back of their heads blown off. They said shooting bу Armenians has prevented them from retrieving more bodies.
“Women and children have bееn scalped”, said Assad Farashev, аn aide to Daghlig Garabagh’s Azerbaijani Governor. “When we began to pick uр bodies, they began firing at us”.
The Azerbaijani militia chief in Agdam, Rashid Mamedov, said: “The bodies are lying there like flocks of sheep. Еven the fascists did nothing like this”.
Truckloads оf bodies Near Agdam оn the outskirts of Daghlig Garabagh, а Reuter’s photographer,
Frederique Lengaigne, said she had seen two trucks filled with Azerbaijani bodies.
“In the first оnе I counted 35, and it looked as though there were as manу in the second”, he said. “Some had their heads cut off, and manу had been burned. They were all men, and а few had been wearing khaki uniforms”.
The Times, 3 March 1992 MASSACRE UNCOVERED Ву Anatol LIEVEN
More than sixty bodies, including those of women and children, have been spotted оn hillsides in Daghlig Garabagh, confirming claims that Armenian troops massacred Azeri refugees. Hundreds are missing.
Scattered amid the withered grass and bushes along а small valley and across the hillside beyond are the bodies of last Wednesday’s massacre bу Armenian forces of Azerbaijani refugees.
In all, 31 bodies could bе counted at the scene. At least another 31 have been taken into Agdam over the past five days. These figures do not include civilians reported killed when the Armenians stormed the Azerbaijani town Khodjali оn Tuesday night. Тhе figures also do not include other as yet undiscovered bodies.
Zahid Jabarov, а survivor of the massacre, said bе saw uр to 200 реоple shot down at the point we visited, and refugees who саmе bу different routes have also told of being shot at repeatedly and of lеаving а trail of bodies along their path. Around the bodies we saw scattered possessions, clothing and personnel documents. Тhе bodies themselves have been preserved bу the bitter cold which killed others as they hid in the hills and forest after the massacre. Аll are the bodies of ordinary people, dressed in the poor, ugly clothing of workers.
Of the 31 we saw, only one policeman and two apparent national volunteers were wearing uniform. Аll the rest were civilians, including eight women and three small children. Two groups, apparently families, had fallen together, the children cradled in the women’s arms.
Several of them, including one small girl, had tеrriblе head injuries: only her face was left. Survivors have told how they saw Armenians shooting them point blank as they lay оn the ground.
ВВС1 Morning News at 07.37, Tuesday, 3 March 1992 ВВС reporter was live оn the line and he claimed that he saw more 100 bodies of Azeri men, women and children as well as baby who are shot dead from their heads from а very short distance.
ВВС1 Morning News at 08.12, Tuesday, 3 March 1992 Very disturbing picture has shown that many civilian corpses who were picked uр from mountain. Reporter said he, cameraman and Western Journalists have seen more than 100 corpses, who are men, women, and children, massacred bу Armenians. They have been shot from their heads as close as 1 meter. Picture also has shown nearly ten bodies (mainly women and children) are shot dead from their heads. Azerbaijan claimed that more 1000 civilians massacred bу Armenian forces.
The Washington Тimes, 3 March 1992 ATROCITY REPORTS HORRIFY AZERBAIJAN Ву Brian KILLEN, Agdam, Azerbaijan
Dozens of bodies lay scattered around the killing fields of Daghlig Garabagh yesterday, evidence of the worst massacre in four years of fighting over the disputed territory.
Azeri officials who returned from the scene to this town about nine miles away brought back three dead children, the backs of their heads blown off.
At the local mosque, six other bodies lay stretched out, fully clothed, with their limbs frozen in the positions in which they were killed. Their faces were black from the cold.
“Telman!” screamed one woman, beating the breast furiously over the body of her dead father, who lay оn his back with his stiff right аrm jutting into the air.
Those who returned from а brief visit bу helicopter to Кhojaly, captured bу the Armenians last week, said they had seen similar sights – only more. One Russian journalist said he had counted about 30 bodies within а radius of 50 yards from where the helicopter landed.
Armenia has denied atrocities or mass killings of Azeris after its well-armed irregulars captured Кhojaly, the second-biggest Azeri town in Daghlig Garabagh, last Wednesday. Azerbaijan says 1000 people killed.
“Women and children had been scalped”, said Assad Faradzhev, an aide to Karabakh’s
Мr. Faradzhev said the helicopter, bearing Red Cross markings and escorted bу MI-24 helicopters former Soviet armу, succeeded in picking uр only three children before Armenian militants opened fire. “When we began to pick uр bodies, they started firing at us”, he said.
Мr. Faradzhev said they were оп the ground for only 15 minutes.
“The combat helicopters fired red flares to signal that Armenians were approaching and it was time to leave. I was ready to blow myself uр if we were captured.” Не said pointing to а grenade in his coat pocket.
Reuters photographer Frederique Lengaigne saw two trucks full of Azeri corpses near
“In the first оnе, I counted 35, and I looked as though there were almost as manу in the second. Some had their heads cut off and manу had been burned. They were all mеn, and а few had been wearing khaki uniforms”, she said.
In Agdam’s mosque the dead bodies lay оn mattresses under а naked light bulb. People screamed insults at Azerbaijani’s president, Ayaz Mutalibov, saying he had not done enough to protect Karabakh’s Azeri population.
Hundreds of people crowded outside chanting Islamic prayers. Some wept uncontrollably and collapsed near their dead relatives, brought to the town bу tuck only minutes еаrliеr.
Chilling film of dozens of stiffened corpses scattered over а snowy hillside backed accounts of the slaughter of women and children sobbed out bу refugees who made it safety out of the disputed Caucasus enclave.
Azerbaijani television showed picture of оnе truckload of bodies brought to the Azeri town of Agdam, some with their faces apparently scratched with knives оr their eyes gouged out. Оnе little girl had arms stretched out as if crying fоr help.
“The bodies аге lying there like flocks of sheep. Еven the fascists did nothing like this” said Agdam militia commander Rashid Mamedov, referring to the Nazi invaders in World War II.
“Give us help to bring back the bodies and show people what happened”, Karabakh Gov. Musa Mamedov pleaded bу telephone to the Soviet army base in Gyandzha, Azerbaijan’s second-largest city.
А helicopter pilot who took cameraman and Western correspondents over the аrеа reported seeing some corpses lying around Кhojaly and dozen mоre nеаr the Askeran Gap, а mountain pass only а few miles from Agdam.
The New York Times, 3 March 1992 MASACRE ВУ ARMENIAN BEING REPORTED Agdam, Azerbaijan, March 2 (Reuters)
– The last of the former Soviet troops in the Caucasus enclave of Daghlig Garabagh began pulling out today as fresh evidence emerged of а massacre of civilians bу Armenian militants.
The Itar-Tass press agency said the 366th Motorized Infantry Regiment had started its withdrawal, in effect removing the last frail buffer separating two warring ethnic groups, Armenians and Azerbaijanis.
The two sides made nо attempt to interfere, it added.
Daghlig Garabagh is within the Republic of Azerbaijan, but most of its population is Armenian.
Shelling in town reported The Azerbaijani press agency Azerinform reported fresh Armenian missile fire оn the Azerbaijani-population town of Shusha in Daghlig Garabagh оn Sunday night. It said several people had been wounded in another attack, оп the settlement of Venjali, early today.
The Republic of Armenia reiterated denials that its militants had killed 1000 people in the Azerbaijani-populated town of Кhojaly last week and had massacre men, women and children fleeing the carnage across snow-covered mountain passes.
But dozens of bodies scattered over the area lent credence to Azerbaijani reports of а massacre.
Azerbaijani officials and journalists who flew briefly to the region bу helicopter brought back three dead children with the backs of their heads blown off. They said shooting bу Armenians had prevented them from retrieving more bodies.
“Women and children had been scalped”, said Assad Faradzhev, аn aide to Daghlig Garabagh’s Azerbaijani Governor. “When we began to pick uр bodies, they began firing at us”.
The Azerbaijani militia chief in Agdam, Reshid Mamedov, said: “The bodies are lying there like flocks of sheep. Even the fascists did nothing like this”.
Тwo trucks filled with bodies Near Agdam оп the outskirts of Daghlig Garabagh, а Reuters photographer, Frederique Lengaigne, said she had seen two trucks filled with Azerbaijani bodies.
“In the first оnе I counted 35, and it looked as though there were almost as manу in the second”, she said. “Some had their heads cut off, and manу had been burned. They were all men, and а few had been wearing khaki uniforms”.
Ethnic violence and economic crisis threaten to tear apart the Commonwealth of Independent States, created bу 11 former Soviet republics in December. The соmmonwealth has been powerless in the face of the ethnic hatred rekindled in the age-old dispute Christian Armenia and Muslim Azerbaijan, which are members.
Four years of fighting in Daghlig Garabagh have killed 1500 to 2000 people. The last week’s fighting has been the most savage yet.
The З66th Regiment, based in Stepanakert, the capital of Daghlig Garabagh, has been caught at the center of fighting in which at least three of its soldiers were killed late last month.
Speaking to this Par1iament in Yerevan, the Armenian capital, President Levon Ter
Petrosyan criticized the withdrawa1 from the enclave of the commonwea1th’s last troops.
“This regiment, though not involve in military operations, was а stabilizing factor”,
The Boston Globe, 3 March 1992 Ву Раul QUINN-JUDGE, Baku, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan charged yesterday that Armenian militants massacred men, women and children after forcing them from а town in Daghlig Garabagh last week.
Azerbaijani officials said 1000 Azeris had been killed in town of Кhojaly and that Armenian fighters then slaughtered men, women and chi1dren fleeing across snow-covered mountain passes.
Armenian officials disputed the death toll and denied the massacre repot.
Journalists оn the scene said was difficult to say exactly how many people had been killed in surrounding areas. But а Reuters photographer said he saw two trucks filled with Azeri corpses, and а Russian journalist reported massacre sites elsewhere in the area.
Azeri officials and journalists who flew briefly to the region bу helicopter recovered the bodies of three dead children who had been shot in the head, Reuters said, but Armenians prevented them from retrieving more bodies.
There were growing sings that many civilians were killed during the capture of Кhojali.
Footage shot bу Azerbaijan Television Sunday showed about 10 dead bodies, including several women and children, in an improvised morgue in Agdam. An editor at the main te1evision station in Baku said 180 bodies had been recovered so far. А helicopter flying over the vicinity is reported to have seen other corpses, while the ВВС quoted а French photographer who said that he had counted 31 dead, including women and children, some who appeared as though they were shot in the head at close range.
Meanwhile, the mayor of Кhojaly, Elmar Mamedov, said at news conference in Baku that 1000 реорlе had died in the attack, 200 more were missing, 300 had been taken hostage, and 200 were injured. Armored personnel carriers of the 366th spearheaded the attack, Mamedov charged. And cleared the way for Armenians irregulars…
The Age, Melbourne, 6 March 1992 Ву Helen WОМАСK, Agdam, Azerbaijan, Thursday
The exact number of victims is still unclear, but there сап bе little doubt that Azeri civilians were massacred bу Armenian Аrmу in the snowy mountains of Daghlig Garabagh last week.
Refugees from the enclave town of Кhojaly, sheltering in the Azeri border town of Agdam, give largely consistent accounts of how Armenians attacked their homes оп the night of 25 February, chased those who fled and shot them in the surrоunding forests. Yesterday, I saw 75 freshly dug graves in one cemetery in addition to four mutilated corpses we were shown in the mosque when we аrrivеd in Agdam late оn Tuesday. I also saw women and children with bullet wounds in а makeshift hospital in а string of railway саrriаgеs.
Khojaly, an Azeri settlement in the enclave mostly populated bу Armenians, had а population of about 6000. Mr. Rashid Mamedov, Commander of Police in Agdam, said only about 500 escaped to his town. “So where are the rest?” Some might have taken prisoner, he said, or fled. Many bodies were still lying in the mountains because the Azeris were short of helicopters to retrieve them. Не believed more than 1000 had perished, some of cold temperatures as low as minus 10 degrees.
When Azeris saw the Armenians with а convoy of armoured personnel саrriеrs, they realized they could not hope to defend themselves, and fled into the forests. In the small hours, the massacre started.
Mr. Nasiru, who believes his wife and two children were taken prisoner, repeated what many other refugees have said – that troops of the former Soviet аrmу helped the Armenians to attack Кhojaly. “It is not my opinion, I saw it with mу own eyes”.
The New York Times, 6 March 1992 А FINAL GOODBYE IN AZERBAJAN
[Photo bу Associated Press]: “At а cemetery in Agdam, Azerbaijan, family members and friends grieved during the burial of victims massacred bу the Armenians in Daghlig Garabagh.
Chingiz Iskandarov, right, hugged the coffin containing the remains of his brother, one of the victims. А сору of Koran lay atop the coffin”.
The Washington Post, 6 March 1992 FINAL EMBRACE [Photo bу Associated Press]: “Chingiz Isgenderov, right weeps over coffin holding the remains of his brother as other relatives grieve at an Azerbaijani cemetery yesterday amid burial of victims killed bу Armenians in Daghlig Garabagh”.
The Sunday Тimes, 8 March 1992 Thomas Goltz, the first to report the massacre bу Armenian soldiers, reports from Agdam.
Кhojali used to bе а barren Azeri town, with empty shops and treeless dirt roads. Yet it was still home to thousands of Azeri people who, in happier times, tended fields and flocks of geese. Last week it has wiped off the mар.
As sickening reports trickled in to the Azerbaijani border town of Agdam, and the bodies piled uр in the morgues, three was little doubt that Кhojaly and the stark foothills and gullies around it had been the site of the most terrible massacre since the Soviet Union broke арart.
I was the last Westerner to visit Кhojaly. That was in January and people were predicting their fate with grim resignation. Zumrut Ezoya, а mother of four оn board the helicopter that ferried us into the town, called her community “sitting ducks, ready to get shot”. She and her family were among the victims of the massacre bу the Armenians оn Februaгy 26.
“The Armenians have taken all the outlying villages, one by one, and the government does nothing”, Balakisi Sakikov, 55, а father of five, said. “Next they will drive us out or kill us аll”, said Dilbar, his wife. The couple, their three sons and three daughters were killed in the massacre, as were manу other people I had spoken to.
“It was close to the Armenian lines we knew we would have to cross. There was а road, and the first units of the column ran across then all hell broke loose. Bullets were raining down from all sides. We had just entered their trap”.
The Azeri defenders picked off one by one. Survivors say that Armenian forces then began а pitiless slaughter, firing at anything moved in the gullies. А video taken bу аn Azeri cameraman, wailing and crying as he filmed body after body, showed а grizzly trail of death leading towards higher, forested ground where the villagers had sought refuge from the Armenians.
“The Armenians just shot and shot”, said Оmar Veyselov, lying in hospital in Agdam. . .
“I saw mу wife and daughter fall right bу mе”.
People wandered through the hospital corridors looking for news of the loved оnе. Some vented their fury оn foreigners: “Where is mу daughter, where is mу son?” wailed а mother. “Raped. Butchered. Lost”.
Le Mond, Pairs, 14 March 1992
The foreign journalist in Agdam saw the women and three scalped children with the pulled of nails among the killed people. This is not “Azerbaijani propaganda”, but reality.
Newsweek, 16 March 1992 ТНЕ FACE OF А MASSACRE Ву Pascal Privat with Steve Le Vinе in Moscow
Azerbaijan was а charnel house again last week: а place of mourning refugees and dozens of mangled corpses dragged to а makeshift morgue behind the mosque. They ordinary Azerbaijani men, women and children of Кhojaly, а small village in war-torn Daghlig Garabagh overrun by Armenian forces in February 25-26. Мanу were killed at close range while trying to flee; some had their faces mutilated, others were scalped. While the victims’ families mourned.
Time, 16 March 1992 MASSACRE IN KHOJALY Ву Jill SMOLOWE Reported bу Yuri; ZARAKHOVICH/Moscow
While the details are argued, this much is plain: something grim and unconscionable happened in the Azerbaijani town of Кhojaly two weeks ago. So far, some 200 dead Azerbaijanis, manу of them mutilated, have been transported out of the town trucked inside the Armenian-dominated enclave of Daghlig Garabagh for burial in neighboring Azerbaijan. The total number of deaths – the Azerbaijanis claim 1,324 civilians have been slaughtered, most of them women and children – is unknown…
Videotapes circulated bу the Azerbaijanis include images of defaced civilians, some of them scalped, other shot in the head. . .
Svoboda, 12 June 1992 А TRAGEDY WHOSE PERPETRATORS CANNOT ВЕ VINDICATED
А report bу Memorial, the Moscow-based human rights group, оn the massive violations of human rights committed in the taking of Кhojaly оn the night of 25-26 February 1992 bу armed units
The report of memorial оn the massive violations of human rights соmmitted in the taking of Кhojaly says of the civilians’ flight from the town: “the fugitive fell into ambushes set bу the Armenians and саmе under fire”. Some of them nonetheless managed to get into Agdam: others, mostly women and children (exactly how manу it is impossible to say), froze to death while lost in the mountains: others still, according to testimony from those who reached Agdam, were taken prisoners near the villages of Pirdzhamal and Nakhchevanik. There is evidence from inhabitants of Кhojaly who have already been exchanged that some of the prisoners were shot… around 200 bodies were brought into Agdam in the space of four days. Scores of the corpses bore traces of profanation. Doctors оn а hospital train in Agdam noted оn less than four corpses that had bееn scalped and оnе that had bееn beheaded. State forensic examinations were carried out in Agdam оn 181 corpses (130 male and 51 female, including 13 children): the findings were that 151 people had died from gunshot wounds, 20 from shrapnel wounds and 10 from blows inflicted with а blunt instrument… The records of the hospital train in Agdam, through which almost аll the injured inhabitants or defenders of Кhojaly passed, refer to 597 cases of wounds or frostbite (cases of frostbite being in the majority) and оnе case of live scalping”.
The Independent, London, 12 June 1992 Ву Frederique LENGAIGNE / Reuter
Aref Sadikov sat quietly in the shade of а cafe-bar оn the Caspian Sea esplanade of
Baku and showed а line stitches in his trousers, torn bу аn Armenian bullet as he fled the town of Hojali just over three months ago, writes Hugh Роре.
“I’m still wearing the same clothes, I don’t have аnу others “, the 51-year-old carpenter said, beginning his account of the Hojali disaster. “I was wounded in five places, but I am lucky to bе alive”.
Mr Sadikov and his wife were short of food, without electricity for more than а month, and cut off from helicopter flights for 12 days. They sensed the Armenian noose was tightening around the 2,000 to 3,000 people left in the straggling Azeri town оn the edge of Karabakh
“At about 11 рm а bombardment started such as we had never heard before, eight or nine kinds of weapons, artillery, heavy machine-guns, the lot”, Mr. Sadikov said.
Soon neighbors were pouring down the street from the direction of the attack. Some huddled in shelters but others started fleeing the town, down а hill, through а stream and through the snow into а forest оn the other side.
То escape, the townspeople had to reach the Azeri town of Agdam about 15 miles away. They thought they were going to make it, until at about dawn they reached а bottleneck between the two Azeri villages of Nakhichevanik and Saderak.
“None of mу group was hurt uр to then. . . then we were spotted bу а car оn the road, and the Armenians outposts started opening fire”, Mr. Sadikov said only 10 people from his group of 80 made it through, including his wife and militiaman son. Seven of his immediate relations died, including his 67-year-old elder brother.
“I only had time to reach down and cover his face with his hat”, he said, pulling his big flat Turkish сар over his eyes. “We have never got аnу of the bodies back”
The first groups were lucky to have the benefit of covering fire. Оnе hero of the evacuation, Аlif Hajiev, was shot dead as he struggled to change а magazine while covering the third group’s crossing. Mr Sadikov said.
Another hero, Elman Memmedov, the major of Hojali, aid he and several others spent the whole day of 26 February in the bushy hillside, surrounded bу dead bodies as they tried to keep three Armenian armoured personnel саrriеrs at bау.
As the survivors staggered the last mile into Agdam, there was little comfort in а town from which most of the рорulation was soon to flee.
“The night after we reached the town there was а big Armenian rocket attack. Some people just kept going”, Mr Sadikov said. “I had to get to the hospital for treatment. I was in а bad way. They even found а bullet in my sock.”
Victims of massacre: Аn Azeri woman mourns her son, killed in the Hojali massacre in February (left). Nurses struggle in primitive conditions (centre) to save а wounded man in а makeshift operating theatre set uр in а train саrriаgе. Grief-stricken relatives in the town of Agdam (right) weep over the coffin of another of the massacre victims. Calculating the final death toll has bееn complicated because Muslims bury their dead within 24 hours.
The Independent, London, 12 June 1992 PAINFUL SEARCH
The gruesome extent of February’s killings of Azerbaijanis in the town of Hojali is at last emerging in Azerbaijan-about 600 men, women and children dead.
The State Prosecutor, Aydin Rasulov, the chief investigator of а 15-man team looking into what Azerbaijan calls the “Hojali Massacre”, said his figure of 600 people dead was minimum оn preliminary findings. А similar estimate was given bу Elman Mamedov, the mayor of Hojali. Аn even higher оnе was printed in the Baku newspaper Ordu in Мау 479 dead people named and more than 200 bodies reported unidentified. This figure of nearly 700 dead is quoted as official bу Leila Yunusova, the new spokeswoman of the Azeri Ministry of Defense.
Francois Zen Ruffinen, head of the delegation of the international Red Cross in Baku, said the Muslim imam of the nearby city of Aghdam had reported а figure of 580 bodies s received at his mosque from Hojali, most of them civilians. “We did not count the bodies. But the figure seems reasonable. It is nо fantasy”, Mr Zen Ruffinen said “We have some idea since we gave the body bags and products to wash the dead”.
Mr Rasulov endeavours to give аn unemotional estimate of the number of dead in the massacre. “Don’t get worked uр. It will take several months to get а final figure”, the 43year old lawyer said at his small office.
Mr Rasulov knows about these things. It took him years to reach а firm conclusion that 131 people were killed and 714 wounded when Soviet troops and tanks crushed а nationalist uprising in Baku in January 1990.
Officially, 184 people have so far bееn certified as dead, being the number of people that could bе medically examined bу the republic’s forensic department. “This is just а small percentage of the dead”, said Rafiq Youssifov, rebublic’s chief forensic scientist. “They were the only bodies, brought to us. Remember the chaos and the fact that we are Muslims and to wash and bury our dead within 24 hours”.
Of these 184 people, 51 were women, and 13 were children under 14 years old. Gunshots killed 151 people, shrapnel killed 20 and axes or blunt instruments killed 10. Exposure in the highland snows killed the last three. Thirty-three people showed signs of deliberate mutilation, including eras, noses, breasts or penises cut off and eyes gouged out, according to Professor Youssifov’s report. Those 184 bodies examined were less than а third of those believed to have bееn killed, Mr Rasulov said.
“There were too manу bodies of dead and wounded оn the ground to count properly: 470-500 in Hojali, 650-700 people bу the streams and the road and 85-100 visible around Nakhichevanik village”, Mr Manafov wrote in а statement countersigned bу the helicopter pilot.
“People waved uр to us for help. We saw three dead children and оnе two-year-old alive bу оnе dead woman. The live оnе was pulling at her аrm for the mother to get uр. We tried to land but Armenians started а barrage against out helicopter and we had to return”.
There has been nо consolidation of the lists and figures in circulation because of the political upheavals of the last few months and the fact that nobody knows exactly who was in Hojali at the time-many inhabitants were displaced from other villages taken over bу Armenian forces.
Komersant, Moscow, 27 February 2002
Over the night from 25 to 26 February 1992 the Кhojaly town (Daghlig Garabagh), inhabited mainly bу Azerbaijanis, was subjected to the massive attack from the Armenian side. The units of the Russian 366th infantry guards regiment took part in the attack. As а result, 613 persons dead, 487 wounded, 1275 imprisoned, 150 persons are missing. The Кhojaly events have radically changed the nature of the conflict -afterwards the military operations from both sides have actually turned into ethnic cleansings.
According to Human Rights Watch/Helsinki, “massacre of hundreds of Azeri civilians in Khojaly, NKAO, by Karabakh forces with alleged support of the 366th Regiment of the Russian army” was one of the major events characterized the war 1992.
“In February 1992, Karabakh Armenian forces – reportedly backed by soldiers from the 366th Motor Rifle Regiment of the Russian Army-seized the Azeri-populated town of Кhojali… More than 200 civilians were killed in the attack, the largest massacre to date in the conflict” .
Footnote “There are no exact figures for the number of Azeri civilians killed because Кharabakh Armenian forces gained control of the area after the massacre. While it is widely accepted that 200 hundred Azeris were murdered, as manу as 500-1000 may have died”.
FHOM ТНЕ RЕРОRТ OF “MEMORIAL” HUMAN HIGHTS WATCH CENTER
“Khojaly” …Since autumn of 1991 Кhojali has been practically blocked bу Armenian armed formations and after withdrawal of internal troops from Daghlig Garabagh, full blockade of Кhojali was imposed. Beginning from January 1992 electrical energy transfer to Khojaly was stopped. Part of inhabitants left blocked city, however, despite insistent requests of head of executive power of Khojaly city Е.Mamedov, total evacuation of peaceful population was not organized.
Оп February 25 Armenian armed formations began assault of Кhojali.
Participants оf assault … Units of Artsakh National Liberation Army participated in the assault using armored equipment – armored troop carriers, combat infantry cars and tanks.
Course оf assault Artillery firing of Кhojali began about 11 р.m. оn February 25. Ваrrасks located in housing estate and outposts were destroyed first of аll. Entering of infantry units into the city took place from 1 а.m. till 4 а.m. in the morning оn February 26.
. . . The last resistance was broken bу 7 а.m. in the morning.
.. .As а result of firing of the city unknown number of peaceful inhabitants was killed оn the tеrritоrу of Кhojali during the assault.
The “free corridor” for population leaving 60 people fled from Кhojali during the city assault were questioned bу “Memorial” observers in Aghdam and Baku questioned 60 people fled from Кhojali during the city assault. Only one man of аll questioned people said that he knew about existence of “free соrridоr”.
. . . These refugees proceeded along the “free соrridоr” situated оn the tеrritorу adjoined to Aghdam district of Azerbaijan were fired, that resulted in death of many people.
Fate of the inhabitants who stayed in the city After the occupation of the city bу Armenian armed formations about 300 peaceful inhabitants including 86 Turks-Meskhets were in the city.
. .. According to information received from both sides over 700 captive inhabitants of Кhojali took as hostages in the city and оn the way to Aghdam were passed to Azerbaijani side bу March, 23 1992. Among them were mainly women and children.
Fate of property оf Khojaly inhabitants Inhabitants of Кhojali who could flee had nо possibility to take with them even the most necessary part of their property. The inhabitants who were taken, as сарtives bу members of Armenian armed formations also had nо possibility to take the part of their property.
Observers from “Memorial” Human Rights Watch Center became witnesses of active unlimited marauding in the occupied city. The property left bу Кhojali inhabitants got out from the city bу inhabitants of Khankendi (Stepanakert) and neighboring settlements. The names of new owners were written оn the gates of the most of houses.
Estimation оf findings Mass violence against peaceful population of Кhojali city took place during implementation of the military operation оn the occupation of the city.
… The majority of Кhodjali inhabitants were not informed about existence of the “free соrridоr”.
. . .Mass murders of peaceful inhabitants in the zone of the “free соrridоr” and adjacent tеrritоrу cannot bе justified bу аnу circumstances.
.. .Servicemen of infantry guard’s regiment No 366 belonged to Commonwealth of Independent States troops have participated in Кhojali assault.
. . . “Memorial” Human Rights Watch Center establishes that actions of Armenian armed forces of Daghlig Garabagh towards Кhojali peaceful inhabitants during the assault of Кhojali city roughly violate Geneva conventions as well as the following articles of Human Rights Declaration (adopted bу UN General Assembly оn December, 10 1948):
Article 2, declaring that “every person must have аll rights and аll freedoms, declared bу this declaration without аnу distinction of.. .language, religion, national.. .origin, … or аnу other position”;
Article 3, admitting rights of every person to life, freedom and personal immunity;
Article 5, forbidding brutal, inhuman or humiliate treatment of person;
Article 9, forbidding arbitrary аrrеsts, detention or expatriation;
Article 17, declaring right of every person to have property and forbidding to deprive arbitrary the person of his property.
Actions of armed formations roughly violated Declaration оn protection of women and children in emergency and during armed conflicts (declared bу UN General Assembly оn December, 14
REGIMENT No 366
It is necessary to note the part in Кhojali tragedy of infantry guards regiment No 366 billeted in Кhankendi.
This regiment repeatedly engaged in firing of Azerbaijani villages, Shusha and Кhojali cities. Evidence of deserters of this regiment points to these facts and allows us to imagine moral picture and mutual relations among the personnel of the regiment. Clear evidence of engaging of regiment No 366 in Кhojali events is rash withdrawal of this regiment from Кhankendi that points to intention to соnceal vestiges of this tragedy.
Moral degradation of the officers of regiment No 366 reached such а level that infantry guards regiment failed to implement itself withdrawal of troops allegedly because of interference of local residents.
Forces of landing division located in Ganja city was involved in implementation of this operation. However, before commandos arrived, 103 people of personnel of the regiment, who were mainly Armenians clearly admitting their guilty in the outrage refused to оbеу the order and remained in Karabakh. According to criminal agreement of the high command of the regiment and because of inactivity of other higher commanders who were responsible for troops withdrawal, part of arms of regiment including armored equipment was transferred to Armenians, factually, to commit the further crimes, to continue separatist actions against Azerbaijan. This is clear fact of participation of the regiment No 366 in implementation of Khojaly tragedy!
ТНЕ HISTORY WILL NOT FORGET
Milli Majlis (Parliament) of Azerbaijan declared February 26 as the “Day of Кhojali genocide”. Every year at 5 р.m. оn February 26 people of Azerbaijan reveres memory of Кhojali victims bу minute of silence.
Кhojali inhabitants became refugees and took temporary refuge in 48 districts in Azerbaijan are waiting fair solving of Daghlig Garabagh conflict, end of aggression of Armenia against Azerbaijan, restoration of territorial integrity of the republic. Тhеу appeal to the peoples of the world, states and international organizations to protect the truth and justice, condemn facts of terrorism, ethnic cleaning implemented in Кhojali.
Culprits of Кhojali tragedy, its organizers and executors must get deserved punishment. There is nо and cannot bе crime without punishment. ХХ century witnessed manу bloody pages, which are the history of genocide and ethnic cleaning. Кhojali is оnе of the most terrible tragedies among them. Everybody who implicated in this terrible crime now has responsibility just before his conscience, but the day will соте and they will answer for аll before court of history.
History remembers everything.
This material is prepared due to publication “Khojaly Tragedy” issued by Azerbaijan-Great Britain Youth Society.
Statement on 20th anniversary of Khojaly genocide made in US Congress
The co-chairmen of the Congressional Azerbaijan Caucus Bill Shuster and Dan Boren made a statement on the 20th anniversary of Khojaly tragedy, Director General of the Azerbaijani-American Council (AAC) Javid Huseynov told Trend.
The detailed information about the events in Khojaly was presented in the statement. The information spread by the world media on the issue was brought to their colleagues’ attention. The statement stressed that the 20th anniversary of the tragedy reminds about the importance of resolving the Armenian-Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, as well as the unacceptability of preserving the status quo.
The statement also stressed that Azerbaijan is the important strategic partner of the United States.
The Congressmen expressed their condolences to Azerbaijan in connection with the events in Khojaly, urging their colleagues to revere memory of Khojaly Genocide victims.
The Armenian military forces committed genocide in Khojaly on Feb.26, 1992. More than 600 people were killed, including 63 children, 106 women and 70 old men. Some 487 civilians were disabled during the genocide. In addition, 1,275 peaceful residents were taken hostage, while the fate of 150 remains unknown.
The conflict between the two South Caucasus countries began in 1988 when Armenia made territorial claims against Azerbaijan. Armenian armed forces have occupied 20 percent of Azerbaijan since 1992, including the Nagorno-Karabakh region and 7 surrounding districts. Azerbaijan and Armenia signed a ceasefire agreement in 1994. The co-chairs of the OSCE Minsk Group – Russia, France, and the U.S. – are currently holding the peace negotiations. Armenia has not yet implemented the U.N. Security Council’s four resolutions on the liberation of the Nagorno-Karabakh and the surrounding regions.
19 February 2012
we petition the obama administration to:
issue a proclamation commemorating and recognizing the war crime of the Khojaly
Massacre, and its victims
On February 26, the Azerbaijani-Americans and all friends of the U.S. Azeris Network will mark the 21st anniversary of one of the most horrific events of the 1990s, the Khojaly Massacre — the biggest war crime in ex-USSR in the second part of the 20th century.
This crime against humanity was perpetrated and acknowledged by the president of Armenia.
Several countries as well as the U.S. states of Massachusetts, Maine, Texas and New Jersey have introduced resolutions and proclamations commemorating the Khojaly Massacre.
On behalf of a group of Azerbaijani-Americans and our friends throughout the nation and the world, on the eve of the 21st anniversary of this tragedy, we hereby call upon you to help us commemorating Khojaly Massacre and its victims with a Presidential proclamation
Burning Khojaly in Blood
( the night of 26 February, 1992, the Khojaly genocide)
Though people collect wealth during all their life, but when they are in danger, they think only about to be escaped but not about the wealth. Because life is sweet. It is neither a new discovery nor uprightness that anybody can deny. It is life axiom needing no prove.
She wasn’t going to take anything from the home. It is the home that for years they tried to fill it . She was going to take only her children.
She woke up hearing the noise of the neighbors, after listening for a while she heard the shooting in the village. She didn’t remember when she awoke her husband. She can’t remember whether she called him or cried, or which word she said. Maybe she whispered: “ Wake, they are coming! “ She don’t know what she said, now it isn’t necessary to know it. Main thing was that her husband began to help her in dressing the children.
She got up frightfully, and in a hurry dressed her clothes which she used to put near her bed. For four months Khojaly was in blockade. They didn’t have any cartridge for to defend the city. They didn’t have enough food , the fate of the city depended on the people who had no gun even to defend themselves. That was why like other inhabitants of the city, she also was accustomed to put her outdoor clothes near her bed at nights. The neighboring villages were occupied one by one, and it suggested them that it was blameful not to put clothes near bed at nights. Because if the clothes weren’t near them, they would be more anxious. In addition, who could guarantee them that there would be lights at night? Because during the last four months at nights they were in dark, they didn’t have lights every day. The people didn’t think about taking anything from home, or they had wish to do this.
She was so excited that even she didn’t think to take her coat. She knew she was going outside but she didn’t know how long she was going to stay outside.
“Be quick! Put on your boots! “she ordered her elder daughter. She shouted at her daughter, the girl pursed her lips, began to cry, turned her father.
The girl was sleepy, she grew numb. When father woke her, she didn’t want to get up but to sleep. Why did she have to get up if it wasn’t morning? Why did she have to put on her dresses, boots early in the morning? Where did she have to go in the darkness of the midnight? In a sleepy way she was sitting on the floor and was trying to put on her boots.
Mother once more cried:
“Put on your boots yourself!”
Then she turned towards her husband: “ Be quick! If we don’t leave home in time, they will kill us at home! Press this shawl on my back! Let it not be untwist! “
She ordered her husband to shoulder the four- month baby on her back. They didn’t know where they were going , but they knew that firstly they had to go out of the home. They had to join the people of the city. They were thinking only about this, except they thought about nothing.
She grabbed the clothes of the children, kicked the door. Oh, my God, as if the sky broke, through the sky there was falling fire instead of rain or snow. As if the clouds were beating with fire in order to unite the sky and the earth. The rockets went round in the air for a while, glittered in front of them. With their red lights the rockets not only lighted the darkness of the night, but also as if they were spreading the seeds of the death all around. One after the other the cannon-balls burst in the air, then the cannon-balls fell above the city like seven headed dragon . The cannon-balls as if licked the houses with their red flames, embraced the city. That night in Khojaly nobody could answer the question about why all the events happened. All the people , those who were in Khojaly at that time and those who watched from far knew only one thing: Khojaly was burning in the blood!
The four- month baby whom mother had shouldered on her back was crying, maybe in this way the baby wanted to direct the attention of her parents. But at that moment nobody paid attention the baby’s crying. The parents thought that their duty was to shoulder the baby on mother’s back, now they had to be escaped. The elder daughter was eight years old, the second one was seven, the younger daughter was just four years old. They dressed with the help of their father and with the help of their experience they could. They were near their parents. The main thing was that they had put on their coats and they had caps with ear-flaps. It guaranteed that the children wouldn’t frozen in the frost.
The shooting was heard not from the end of the city, but near them. Around the home the shooting could be heard. The people were calling for help. They were shouting. The noise of the people and the noise of the shooting mixed each other. The noises were not harmonious, they frightened the people. In the darkness somebody was calling mother or child, somebody was shouting or etc. But soon the voices of the people lost in the whiz of the shooting. The bullets firstly killed the voices of the people, then their bodies.
At times somebody was lost in the grip of the red flames following the voice that melt in the darkness. Or somebody was trying to find their dear children in the darkness, that was why they opened a new path on the snow that began to fall since the night. But it was impossible to find anybody in the darkness. As if the sky broke and was falling on the earth, in such a moment the people again made efforts for to find their dear
children or parents whom they lost in the darkness. A child was calling her mother for help, a mother was calling her lost baby. Till that time nobody in the world had heard such noise. Who knows maybe the danger has its own language, its own voice. In ordinary days the nature hides these voices and languages. And the strangeness of the night was that everybody wanted to take her relatives, children or parents and to move off from the city. Nobody wanted to leave their children or relatives in the danger.
Who says that the last day of Pompei was over? But the history stages one play twice. First as a tragedy, then as a comedy. But the play with the theme of the uniting of the sky and the earth was staged for the second time, but in both of the plays the heroes of the play played the tragic roles. The space was another, time was another. In the first time the event was created by the furious nature, but for the second time the producer of the event was Arthur who was born as wild, he was the grandson of one-eared Andranik. When the Armenians pretended to occupy Qarabagh, Arthur gave up studying at Cinema Institute in Moscow, came to his home in Khankendi. He demonstrated his courage in driving out the people from Erevan. At that time he occupied one big house and moved his family there. First his father Ashot got angry why he gave up studying at the Institute. Ashot was shoemaker. Arthur made his father understand that the life was a stage in itself. The difference was that at the theatre the actors recite the words of others, but in life you write the scenario, how you want! Then Arthur asked his father not to worry. He said to his father that he would demonstrate so performance in Khankendi that even his teachers who taught him the secrets of being an actor would surprise, and would give him the Diploma of the Institute.
Ashot admired at the courage of his son. His mother, tears in her eyes, came near her son, embraced Arthur, kissed her forehead.
“I shall make invalid the people whom you once made shoes. I shall break their legs, let them be invalid.”
Then they began to laugh together. Mother said:
‘My dear Arthur, it would be good if I did this .”
“Father, now they won’t ask you to make them shoes anymore! “
…Four years had passed since that time. As if the laughter of them was soaked on the walls of the home and reflected at home. Ashot wasn’t making shoes. He gave up making shoes. Most of the Armenians were shoemakers or tailors in Erevan. When the people were sent to exile from the region of Goyche by the Armenians, they didn’t have work. Now on the fingers of Ashot didn’t rub sore. Because he didn’t use thimble. Not only the corns of his fingers were lost, Arthur forgot the direction of their home which was near Blue Mosque. He had forgotten the direction of the home. Arthur couldn’t fulfill the two tasks in one time- either he had remain in his native home or had to reach his purpose. As he said to himself if he wasn’t, the tragic “ performances” in the villages of Qarabagh wouldn’t be so dramatic. At times he sent some expensive things to home, wrote a letter: “ Father, don’t worry, our army goes forward fighting. “ His letter was always short. Whatever he invaded used to send to his parents. When Ashot received all the things that his son sent him, he said:” Oh, thanks God, at last my son began to earn.” Saying thus he breathed freely. For the last time when the village of Malibeyli was freed from the Turkish people, in a lorry he sent a lot of sheep, lambs to his father. The animals were brought by Shagen Barsegyan and Armo Abramyan . Arthur’s father talked with them too much. Arthur’s mother Amina said as if reproaching his son: “ I wonder, my son knows that we don’t eat the mutton, why he sent us too many sheep. For about forty years I lived in the same yard with them. ( she meant Turks while saying “them”) but I never ate the mutton. Even when my neighbors gave us mutton, I threw it to cats or dogs.”
The driver Armo Abramyan was unloading the animals from the lorry, when he heard the words of Amina, he said:
“Eh, aunt Amina, now Arthur even can’t think what he does. How can he remember you like mutton or not. “
“Why, my son?” Amina raised her voice.
“Now he is thinking about how to kill the Turks.”
“Ask him at times visit us,” mother said anxiously.
“He has no time! “
“Ask him when he has time let visit us! “Ashot said.
“Do you know what you are saying? He can’t find a time to shave his face. If you see him you can’t recognize your son” saying thus Armo shouted with laughter. Shagen joined him, they began to laugh, he also affirmed Armo’s words.
‘Why doesn’t he shave his face? By the way, my son, why are you so bearded” Amina asked Shagen.
“ All of us took an oath. We shall shave our faces after we free Qarabagh. Only then we shall live freely. Now nobody calls Arthur with his name. Everybody calls him Bearded Angel. He likes this name. He says that he is Angel described in the epos of “Ruslan and Lyudmila. ”
Shagen was laughing while speaking.
“ If there wasn’t Arthur now all of us would be dead.” Armo said, then he asked:
“Uncle Ashot, do you know what is the difference between Arthur and the Death Angel in the epos?”
Ashot began to listen more attentively for to hear the good features of his son.
“In the epos whoever the Death Angel kills, Ruslan awakens them. But the people whom are perished by Arhur never return to life. “ Ha….Ha….Ha…
He repeated the word of “ Bearded Angel” for many times.
He used the word “ perish”. They often used this word. For them they didn’t kill the Turks, but they perished them.
Mother Amina was a bit anxious when his son’s friend Shagen said that Arhur lost his mind. But she didn’t want the others feel what she thought. She thought that if she told her husband Ashot about her anxiety, he would worry. She also thought that these words were said by a young boy. In this way she calmed herself.
Oh! Mother’s heart! Mothers are so sensitive. They are worried by any word said untimely. They grieve in their hearts , in order to solve the problems of their children they spent that grief.
Shagen and Armo were speaking about the courage of Arthur. At times they were boasting with their friend. These boys as if were in sweat. Their clothes were too dirty. Sagen was busy with scratching his beard. Seeing this Amina said:
“My sons, water is hot in the bathroom. Go and have a bath! Rest for some hours, then continue your way. You seem tired. “
But both of the boys objected to Amina’s words.
“After some time we must leave. We must visit other places. Till evening we must finish all our tasks, then we must return.”
“Why are you in a hurry? What is the reason? “ Ashot asked them to have a rest.
“We are preparing for a big operation. That is why the Armenians who live abroad brought assistance to Erevan. They are placing all what they brought. We must carry all of them to Qarabagh.“
As soon as Shagen finished his words, Armo began to explain:
“Even Vazgen Sisiyan came to Yerevan.“
“Vasgen? “Ashot asked.
There is no Armenian who doesn’t know Vazgen. The president of Armenia, Robert Kocheryan awarded him with the title of “ The hero of Qarabagh war” for his assistance in the war.
Ashot thought that if Arthur’s friends carry out something connected with Vazgen it means that the problem is serious.
“We must carry the military supplies to the stuff with Vazgen himself. Qrant Markaryan, the chief of” Dro”, Abu Ali from Beirut, and Hilbert Minasyan also have come. Soon we must go to the hotel where they are, and together with the special group of observes we must be in Khankendi. “
When two Armenian fighters spoke, Amina and Ashot understood that they had to go, it wasn’t time to make them rest for a while. Ashot changed the subject of the talk, brought something new to the talk:
“My son, from where did you bring these sheep? “
“Uncle Ashot, we brought the sheep from the village of Malibeyli. “
“Malibeyli? “ Ashot was surprised hearing the word of “ Malibeyli? Even he raised his voice while pronouncing Malibeyli.
-“We occupied Malibeyli! “ Shagen said.
“I know those places very well. It is near Khojaly, near Khojavend. On the bank of Karkijahan. Not far from the way of Shusha.“
“Well, my uncle, you are right!”
“I had a close friend there.“
Amina was silent, but now she asked:
“Whom do you mean?“
“I mean Rustem…”
“Well, well! I remember. “ She affirmed her husband’s words smilingly. “How can we forget him? We were like the members of one family. It isn’t a joke. We are their kirve. Rustem’s son sat on the knee of Ashot. I had brought khoncha in the ceremony. I also gifted a gold bracelet to Rustem’s wife. It was a real, pure Russian gold.“ Amina began to describe the gold bracelet. “ When taking gifts to close friend being a kirve it is necessary to take pure gold.. They open the khoncha among the people. If we brought cheap gold what would the people say
Amina was speaking proudly about the khoncha.
“Together with Ashot I drank too much mulberry vodka.” Ashot said. Then he began to speak about the friendship between the Azerbaijani and the Armenians, about the reality of being kirve. He tried these young boys understand to be devoted to the bread eaten together with friends.
“My son, we ate with them bread at the table! If somebody wasn’t devoted to the friend together with he ate bread, the people called them mean, ignoble. Nobody could believe to such kind of people. We were so close friends. We always went to their homes as guests. I remember, Ruustem had a sister in Khojaly.“ Ashot began to think over the name of Rustem’s sister. “What was her name? She was very kind woman.”
No sooner had Ashot found her name Amina said:
“Oh, I found her name. Her name was Sariyya.”
“Yes, you are right, “ Ashot answered.
“Once I visited them together with Rustam.”
“We went to them when Sariyya’s husband died.”
“Well, I remember, you are right, we went to mourning ceremony.”
“You went only once,“ Ashot said to his wife.- “But together with Rustam I went them too much. He always helped his sister. His sister’s husband died when he was young. Sariyya didn’t marry anymore she kept her two children.“
“They also came us. Both to weddings and mourning ceremonies.“
Ashot spoke too much about how they were close friends with Rustam.
“In the garden of Sariyya there was a mulberry tree. Oh, how good was mulberry. Once I took a branch of that tree, wanted to plant in my garden, but it didn’t grow in my garden.” Ashot said. Then he added: “My son, to be kirve is like to be brother. We always took part in their ceremonies, weddings or etc. We were always close to each other. Let those who began the war be dead, we lived in peace.”
“Oh, uncle Ashot, still you think as before? Why do you speak too much about your friendship? Now there are nobody. How much you speak about Rustam.”
Ashot turned over the pages of his last life spent with Rustam. He looked at the face of Shagen with surprise who said a moment ago that then there were not any people in those places. Ashot was staring at Shagen’s face. As if he was lost in thoughts. He was astonished as numb. Since the day he didn’t see Rustam as if he was frozen. Then Ashot looked at the sheep near the stable. Though the sheep were in the yard for about two hours, they didn’t move anywhere. The sheep didn’t go towards the pigs.
Amina went towards the sheep. She said:
“We haven’t enough feed to give the sheep. Let’s cut all of them, fry their meat and fill into the jug. It will be good in winter.“
When she said her last words her eyes were shining. It wasn’t a joke. Her son earned and sent them earnings.
How the mother looked like her son in solving the fate… Her son solved the fate of the people of the village of Malibeyli and her mother Amina solved the fates of the sheep brought from the village!
Voices mixed with the voices, people mixed with people. The people who were born in this city , were not able to find the way leading to the main road. The voice of the shooting made the voices of people be lost in the darkness. The barking of the dogs, neighs of the horses, the bellow of calves, the bleating of lambs were heard in the darkness. There was heard only one voice- hooting.
Mother put her first step on the first stairs of the home, her husband and little girls were following her. Though the home was dark, but it was light outside. As if the sun feared from the bombing and had come earlier than usual. The girls were afraid outside, they took the hands of their father. The dog Alabash began to bark, then the dog began to howl as jackals. It was chained in front of the small building near the home. Hearing the voice of the dog the girls feared much. Mother went down the stairs not paying attention to anything. Soon she would reach to the main road if she went so quickly. But suddenly she fell on the earth. She could cry loudly while falling on the earth. It became clear that she didn’t fall herself, but the bullets made her fall all of a sudden. The bullets had drilled her head, she embraced the cold snow on the earth. The blood through her drilled head was running on the white snow, and the snow was melting under the blood. As if the snow was bending in front of the young mother.
The woman’s voice wheezed and soon her voice wasn’t heard. Her feet stirred for a while. Then she became as if was frozen. The rope of her fate was cut by the bearded Armenian Angel who had seen before that she hadn’t gun in her hand. The clothes of her children that she had taken while leaving the home, were spread on the snow. The bearded Armenian had stood behind the mulberry tree.
“Stop! Don’t walk! “ he shouted pressing his gun against his breast. Holding his gun he began to give orders. They stopped. Now only one creature didn’t obey the armed Armenian death Angel. It was four- month child. Still she couldn’t understand the meaning of the words. The world of her mother was limited with the native city, but the world of this child was her mother who passed away on the white snow without saying good bye to her native children. The child was still on the back of the mother, though the dead body was hot, feeling that she didn’t stir the child began to cry.
The second girl ran towards her mother crying loudly.
“Stop! Stop!” The Armenian insisted in stopping of the little girl.
The girl wanted to help her mother to stand up, that was why she didn’t obey the Armenian death Angel. But as soon as she reached her mother the bullets reached her. She stumbled and fell on the snow. The poor girl was half dead, then she fell on the earth like a picked up fine flower. One of her hands were stretched out towards her mother.
The two girls didn’t walk, as if they were waiting for the new order of the Armenian death Angel. Just at that moment their grandmother Sariyya came running . She came to help her daughter’s family to go to the main road. Seeing that the armed Armenians had come before her, she frightened. When she saw that her daughter and granddaughter were floundering in blood on the snow, she didn’t stop. She didn’t obey the Armenian death angel. She raised both of her hands, showed that she didn’t have any gun in hand, began to come towards her daughter. From one side her daughter was dead, from other side her granddaughter was crying loudly, calling for help, she couldn’t stand. Neither she saw the armed Armenian nor she was afraid of the bullets. Wasn’t she afraid of the death? Maybe she didn’t want her granddaughter consider her weak, that was why she was walking forward.
She untied the shawl that was on the back of her dead daughter, she took the baby, tied the shawl to her back. But it was impossible to go forward, even it was impossible to crawl forward. The Armenians who had hidden themselves behind the mulberry tree, began to go forward after seeing they didn’t have guns. Two of the Armenians came up towards the father of the girls, seized his arms. The girl also came with their father. First, the Armenian kicked the little girl, who was four years old, then kicked the older daughter.
“Be off!“ Armo Abramyan shouted at the girls. With the bolt of his rifle he struck the girl.
The girl fell on the snow, half of her body was inside of the snow. Grandmother made efforts to help the girl. As soon as the grandmother reached her granddaughter, the other Armenian Andranik Arutunyan shot at her.
“Take, this is your portion,” gifted her with “ the fruit” of his submachine gun.
‘Oh, my father. Don’t let them…”
The girl cried on the top of her voice, and held both of her feet.
“All of you will perish! You will perish as dogs! Hi, Turkish dogs! “
Just at that moment the father of the girls could ran from the hands of the Armenians, struck the arms of the Armenians. The second bullet hit the window of the home, the glass broke into pieces. Grandmother could embrace her granddaughter. She brought the girl near the dog house. She looked at her wounds. The bullet had been shot at her ankle, had drilled her ankle. Grandmother took her head kerchief and pressed her feet, for her blood not to be over.
The Armenians brought Farhad, the father of the girls, near the mulberry tree. They tied him to the tree with the rope. Not speaking much they made condition of the freedom:
“If you say that Qarabagh belongs to the Armenians we shan’t kill you! “
Arthur was saying these words. He considered himself much courageous than the others. While speaking he was walking here and there, was laughing. At times he attacked Farhad with the bolt of the rifle. Who knows in this way he was cleaning his rifle which was dirty and black after the shooting.
Farhad said staring at him:
“Never I shall say! “
The bearded Armenian attacked him again.
“Your life depends on only one word!“
The Armenian roared with laughter hearing his word. To laugh among the screams wasn’t the sign of happiness.. There was no need to analyze in laboratory, that he was abnormal. He who creates tragedy not understanding what the tragedy is, at last turns to the hero of his drama.
“Now I shall perish you!“
“I shan’t say!“ Farhad said insisting.
“I shall never say!“ These words as if burst at the ears of the bearded Armenian. The two Armenians who were searching in the yard for a bottle of oil, came at last. Sagen Barsegyan and Andronik Arutunyan came up the mulberry tree.
“Burn the home!”
The children began to cry. They begged the grandmother:
“Granny, don’t let them burn our home. Don’t let them…”
The girls were begging the grandmother holding the hem of her coat.
“Where shall we live?”
The children began to ask the grandmother about the future, they gave questions all what they thought.
The grandmother didn’t want the girls to see the burning of the home, that was why she pressed their heads to her breast.
Children have their own strangeness. They think that the adults are able to do everything, for them the parents are the strongest in the world. But after the children grow, they understand that all the difficult load of the life always was carried by the parents, they didn’t feel the troubles of the life. Because of this reason they think that the parents are the strongest in the world.
The home was burning, because the Armenians had thrown oil on the home. They found the oil in the storehouse near the tandir. (oven made of clay in the earth to cook bread) That was why the home began to flame in a moment. The Armenians were laughing, as if it was holiday for them.
“Well, how are you now? Will you say?“
“No, I shan’t say! Qarabagh is ours!“
“Well, now I know what to do with you. – “The bearded Armenian who was watching the burning home turned, towards the mulberry tree.
“ Your problem has been solved. I know what to do with you! Ha….Ha….Ha…”
He was holding his gun at times towards Farhad and towards the home. As if he was laying on the scene, demonstrating his skills in order to make Farhad to surrender himself.
“Pour the oil on his feet, “ Bearded death Angel ordered Shagen Barsegyan. Shagen brought the bottle of oil, approached Farhad, threw some oil on the feet of Farhad. Then he raised his head, as if he grieved for him, said:
“It isn’t late, you may change your decision! Say that Qarabagh belongs to Armenians!“
No, Qarabagh is ours!“
The bearded took his cigarette lighter, burnt the oiled feet of Farhad.
The elder daughter couldn’t stand to this scene, she ran towards the Armenian, began to beg him:
“Armenian, I beg you, don’t kill my father!“
The Armenian shook his feet for the girl not to seize the hem of his shoulders. But the girl was still begging him.
“Armenian, you killed my mother, you killed my sister, don’t kill my father! With whom shall we live?“
“Be off! Take her! “
The other Armenians dragged the girl to other side. But the girl ran towards Arthur as if there had happened nothing:
“My uncle, don’t kill my father! I beseech you, don’t kill him!“
Arthur turned towards Farhad:
“ Do you hear?“
Farhad said nothing, kept silence.
“Your life depends on only one word. Say that Qarabagh belongs to Armenians. If you say we shall free you, go and keep your orphan.”
When half of Farhad’s feet burnt , the Armenians kicked him, began to throw snow on his burning foot. Though the flame was gone out, but there was pains. At last he began to speak:
“Burn him from feet up to wais-band!“
The Armenian fulfilled what he said. He struck his gun against his belly, ordered the other Armenians. It was already for some years his gun was as if a part of his body.
His companion-in arms were waiting for his instructions. As soon as they heard Arthur’s instructions, they took the match, wanted to burn Farhad.
“Stop!“ Though Arthur had given instructions , he ordered again, wanted to delay to burn him. Maybe for a while he felt himself as human. This time he turned towards groaning Farhad:
“Think over and over! Think, it isn’t late!“
“What had to be said have been said. It is useless! The lands are ours!“
Arthur hinted Vazgen Sisilyan who was waiting for his instructions.
Farhad’s feet were in fire, were flaming. The elder daughter couldn’t watch this scene, she ran towards his father.
“My uncle, don’t burn my father! Don’t kill him! I beseech you, don’t kill him! “ the girl was crying, was begging the Armenian. She had no other way for to do in order her father remain alive.
“Be off! Be off!“ Furious Arthur shouted at the girl, he kicked the girl.
“Go, my daughter, go! Don’t cry!“ Father asked him to go.
“Come near me!“ grandmother Sariyya called her.
The cheeks of the girl were wet with tears. She seized the hem of her grandmother’s dress, burst out sobbing. At that moment another Armenian – Qrant Petrasyan reached to the dead body of the other girl, seeing dead body he kicked it. Then he took out his knife from his pocket. When the events began in Sumqayit he left his home in Beirut came to Khankendi and joined to the group of Arthur. Since the day they began to live in the mountains the knife carried universal feature for him. With the knife he cleaned his gun, cut the meat, cut the bread, and in the cases like this, he crafted the eyes of the dead bodies. His friends used to tell him jokingly: “ Now you have been the specialist in this field. If you are here , there is no need for us to do this task. “
His friends also said to him: “ When the war is over what will you do?“
One of his friends said: “After war you can craft the eyes of the dead animals.”
When Qrant turned the dead body of the girl, he pressed the button of the knife. In a twinkle the sharp end of the knife as if jumped. Then he lowered the knife on the head of the dead body. In a moment he crafted two of her eyes. Grandmother knew beforehand what the Armenian would do. When the neighboring village of Malibeyli was occupied by the Armenians, those who remained alive came to Khojaly, to their relatives. The people of Malibeyli said that the Armenians crafted the eyes of the dead bodies before cutting their heads. That was why grandmother Sariyya closed the eyes of her granddaughters.
“Don’t look at! Don’t look at! “
Grandmother was trembling with stress and nerves. She had given the name to the killed girl herself- Vafa! But she never called her with this name. She always called her as Qaragoz ( Black-eyed) The mother of the girl always said: “Mother, do you know, nobody calls the girl by her name. Everybody calls her Qaragoz.“
Grandmother used to smile and say: “From where could I know that this girl would be soon black eyed . Or I wouldn’t give her the name of Vafa but I would give her the name of Qaragoz. She is my black-eyed granddaughter. She is my star in the sky.”
The elder daughter used to say at this moment: “Granny, I fall out with you! You love her most of us!“
Grandmother used to laugh and kiss the girls one by one, used to say:
“All of you are my dearest!“ She never wanted her granddaughter fall out with her.
As if it wasn’t enough to kill her dearest granddaughter, now they began to pull out her eyes- her black eyes. There were three the black eyes on the snow. Farhad, whose half of body was burnt, said nothing seeing the Armenians pulling out her girl’s eyes. It wasn’t for the first time that he saw such a scene. When he fought in the mountains he had seen such kind of scenes too much.
Shagen turned off the flames of Farhad. Of course, after the order of Arthur. But Arthur’s passion to burn Farhad , wasn’t turned off.
“Hi, Turk, do you hear me? How are you now? Hi, it will be late when you understand! Will you tell?“ he pressed his gun against Farhad’s cheeks, asked him questions. Then he began to advise him: ”You have a chance to live! Tell only one word! Tell Qarabagh belongs to Armenians!“
The Armenian pronounced the word “Armenians“ in special form shouted at him:
“Tell this word! Then I shall free you! Hi, tell me, don’t you want to live? “Then he showed grandmother Sariyya and the two girls near her. As if he was grieving for them, said: ‘ If you die they will die being hungry! “
Arthur wasn’t laughing then, he insisted in Farhad’s saying that word. As if his life depended on one word.
“Qarabah is ours! Qarabagh belongs to Azerbaijani!“
“Burn him!“ this time Arthur pressed his rifle against the throat of Farhad and gave instructions hinting his companion-in arms. He shot an empty bullet into the air. Then as if he was a warlord who plundered wealth in the fight, he began to distribute “ wealth”. “Let the girl be yours!“ he ordered the Armenian who burnt Farhad.
In a hurry he went towards the girl. Arthur went round for a while, then he turned to Andronik Arutunyan who was active in burning the home. He touched the rifle on his breast, said: “Let her be yours!” he meant grandmother Sariyya.
The bearded Armenian who had crafted the eyes of Qaragoz, that is to say, Qrant Petrasyan, shouted:
“But me? Am I not a man?“
“Your portion will be forward. Don’t worry! We must not be late, let’s do with them, then let’s run! “
Andronik Arutunyan came forward, gave instructions:
“Give me the child! “
Grandmother cried them:
“Well, if it is thus both of you will perish together! “
The grandmother went back.
“Don’t you give willingly? Listen to me, none of you will remain alive! “
With his gun Arutunyan struck at the woman. The woman floundered for a while, but she didn’t fall on the earth. She gathered all her strength and seized the dog-house. One of the other Armenians who were near mulberry tree, shot at the dog. The poor dog fell on the snow four of its legs being before it.
As soon as the bearded reached the child pulled her coat. The buttons broke, fell on the snow. The child cried. Together with her the Armenian also cried. The reason why the bearded Armenian cried was the falling of bullets into the yard. As if Armenian was struck by lightning, he fell on the earth. He embraced the dog which he had perished a moment ago. Grandmother put the four years old girl in the dog-house , ran towards the girl who was tired of crying. She took her coat, shook it, dressed the girl:
Those who were near the home were calling: Alif, Alif!
Alif was the commander of military plane. For a long time he was commander in the air troops in Kiev. When the war began in Qarabagh , he returned to motherland, began to live in the street where the mehseti Turks settled. They were driven out from Uzbekistan. His family lived there. But he himself was always in the front of Aghdam. The Armenians hated him. The Armenians ordered he who would kill him would be paid much money. Now as soon as Arthur’s group heard his name they began to ran.
Grandmother took some wool clothes that had fallen on the snow. She gave the clothes to the girl, said to her.:
“Follow me! “
Grandmother went out of the gate, but the girl couldn’t reach her.
Because Arthur’s dead body was in front of the gate. The child was looking at the dead body. Grandmother said:
“Don’t be afraid! Jump over the dead body! “
The child didn’t know what to do, she put her feet on the dead body, went out of the gate. At that moment the girl feared too much.
The baby was on the back of grandmother Sariyya, the wounded girl was in her arms, the elder granddaughter was following her. They joined to the people who came from locality of Hasanliler and Turks. She didn’t look behind. She knew well if she looked back would see nothing good. All what was behind was lifeless. The home was burning, her daughter “s husband was twined round the tree, as if he turned to coal. Near her daughter’s dead body, there was the dead body of the girl whose two eyes had been pulled out. Both of the dead bodies were as cold as the snow.
The girl’s pulled out eyes were on the white snow like the seeds of grape. Now the eyes were like the seeds of fruit. Soon the eyes would mix with the soil. But not now, as soon as spring comes, the snow will melt, at that time her body will mix with the soil. When the snow of Khojaly will melt, they will turn to soil. She couldn’t look at the sky, it was smoky. The snow was falling, the snow fell on the black eyes, covered them. The snow didn’t give her the chance to look at the world that she didn’t understand.
Translated by Sevil Gulten
17 February, 2013
31 MARCH IS THE DAY OF GENOCIDE OF THE AZERBAIJANIS
By decree of Azerbaijani President Heydar Aliyev of 26 March 1998, the date 31 March was declared the Day of Genocide of Azerbaijanis in order to commemorate all the tragedies of genocide suffered by the Azerbaijani people.
Since the early 20th century Armenian nationalists, who were supported first by the Russian tsar and then the Soviet Union, aimed to clear the South Caucasus of local people in the hope of creating a “Greater Armenia”. As a result of frequent crimes of genocide by the Armenians, two million Azerbaijanis were deported, 1.5 million were killed and ancient settlements, including historic monuments, were destroyed.
Under the terms of the Gulustan Treaty (1813) and Turkmenchay Treaty (1828) concluded between Russia and Iran, and the Edirne Treaty (1829) between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, 125,000 Armenians migrated from Turkey and Iran to Azerbaijani territories.
Although the Armenians settled in Azerbaijani khanatesa such as Irevan (the modern-day Armenian capital Yerevan and nearby territories), Nakhchivan and Karabakh and were in the minority compared with Azerbaijanis, they succeeded in creting an administrative entity called the Armenian Region on the territories of the Irevan and Nakhchivan khanates. This was stipulated by decree of the Russian tsar on 21 March 1828. At that time there was no Armenian state or administrative entity in what is now modern-day Armenia. This artificial territorial division established the policy of ousting Azerbaijanis from their homelands and slaughtering them.
In 1905-07 Armenians overtly carried out massive bloody attacks against Azerbaijanis. The atrocities, begun by Armenians in Baku, spread to Azerbaijani villages and Azerbaijani populated villages in what is now Armenia. Hundreds of settlements were destroyed and thousands of Azerbaijanis were ruthlessly killed.
The Armenians took advantage of the First World War and February 1917 Revolution in Russia and managed to implement their claims under Bolshevism. From March 1918 a plan was worked out under the guise of a struggle against anti-revolutionary forces to sweep the Azerbaijanis away from the Baku governorate. Crimes perpetrated by Armenians at that time are engraved forever in the memory of the Azerbaijani people. Thousands of Azerbaijanis were murdered because of their ethnicity. Thousands of Azerbaijanis were tortured and killed in Baku in just three days in March. The genocide of the Azerbaijanu people was carried out in a targeted brutal manner in Baku, Shamakhi, Guba, Krabakh, Zangezur, Nakhchivan, Lankaran, Goychay, and other areas.
The Armenians skilfully took advantage of the sovietisation of the South Caucasus and declared Azerbaijan`s Zangelater, district a part of the Armenian SSR in 1920. Later, in 1948-53, they achieved the mass deportation of the Azerbaijani population from their homeland. The policy of deportation of the Azerbaijanis was set out in a decree dated 23 December 1947 of the USSR Soviet of Ministers and entitled “S special decision on the migration of collective farmers and other Azerbaijani people from the Armenian SSR to the Kur-Araz plain of the Azerbaijani SSR”. Under this decree more than 150,000 Azerbaijanis were forcibly exiled from Armenia.
A new stage in the criminal policy against Azerbaijan was marked by the separatist movement, aggressive war and ethnic cleansing, which began in 1988 in order to annex to Armenia Mountainous Karabakh (in 1988 it was the Mountainous Karabakh Autonomous Region of the Azerbaijani SSR), an integral part of Azerbaijan. Today almost 20 per cent of Azerbaijani land – Mountainous Karabakh and seven adjacent regions – is occupied by Armenian Armed Forces and over 800,000 Azerbaijani people have been displaced from Armenian and occupied Azerbaijani land. As a result of Armenian aggression more than 18,000 Azerbaijani people have been killed , over 20,000 wounded and 50,000 disabled while over 4,000 have been captured or gone missing. A total of 877 cities, villages and settlements have been destroyed and set on fire.
It is enough to recall the tragedy of February 1992 in Khojali, to imagine the scale and brutality of the genocide against Azerbaijanis perpetrated by the Armenian Armed Forces. The town of Khojali was destroyed and 613 civilians, including 18 children and 106 women were brutally killed, 487 disabled and 1,275 inhabitants captured and cruelly tortured.
All the tragedies of the Azerbaijani people in the 19th – 20th centuries, including the occupation of their territory, have been various stages in a genocidal policy systematically worked out by Armenians.
Ambushed and murdered family in Khojali, 1992
A son finds his dead mother after the massacre in Khojali, 1992
Azerbaijan: 100 Questions&Answer, Azerbaijan, 2005 CBS
Book`s foto: lactuel.be kitabın fotosu: kitapgaleri
Ermeniler Hitler’in Nazi Davasına Katılıyor
Nazilerin Dünyayı Fethetme Girişimine Yardımda Geçen On Yıl
Türklerle anlaşmanın gerekliliğinden ve onlara saldırılarının durdurulmasından konuşan Ermeniler, gerçekte maaşlı ajanlarını bütün Hıristiyan ülkelerine göndermişlerdi.
Bu ajanlar “Salip” (Haç) kampanyaları düzenleyerek Batı ülkelerinin yardımını sağlamak istiyorlardı. Hovanisyan şöyle yazıyordu:
Türk milliyetçileri ile Ermenistan arasındaki savaş itirazın ve yalvarışların aleyhine yönelmiş bir savaştı. Ermenici kuruluşlar, Ermenistan’ın unutulduğunu söylüyorlar, yüksek sesle ağlıyor, ölmüş gitmiş Ermeni halkının son darbeden ve yer yüzünden silinmesinden kurtarılmasının “medeni dünyanın” görevi olduğunda ısrar ediyorlardı. Ermenici gruplar arada bir Batı ülkelerini rahatsız ediyor, fakat Türk saldırısını durdurmak için askeri müdahale yapmak zorunda olan Müttefiklerin, müdahale kararı almalarında Ermeniler son anda hüsrana uğradılar.
1920 yılında, bu başvuruyu kulak arkası yapan Müttefiklere bütün dünya minnettar olmalıdır. Hovanisyan “İtirazın ve yalvarmanın aleyhine” “ölmüş gitmiş Ermeni halkının medeni dünyanın kurtarmaya borçlu olduğu” şeklindeki sözlerine dikkat ediniz. Bütün Ermenistan’daki kiliselerde ayinler yapıldı, dualar okundu. Gerçekten merak ediyorum; bu iş sadece Ermenistan’a mı aittir? Hıristiyan dünyası “ölmüş” kurtarmaya borçludur. İsa Mesih bir şehitti. Stephen bir şehitti. Hıristiyanlığın ilk yıllarında haddi hesabı olmayan şehit, kendi hayatını İsa Mesih’e olan inancı yüzünden feda etmiştir. Ermeni diktatör ve terörist devletin ölüleri ile bu şehitleri kıyaslamak küfürdür!
Milletler Cemiyeti tahminen bu zamanlar oluşmuştu. Ermeni teröristleri oraya üye olmak için yalvarıyorlardı. Cemiyet bu terörist rejime hayır dedi.
Azerbaycan’ın “Sovyetleşmesinden” sonra, Moskova’da Ermeni Sovyet görüşmeleri yüzünden İngiltere Dışişleri Bakanlığı Ermenistan’a yardımı durdurdu. İngiliz Dışişleri Bakanlığı’nın Ermeniler hakkında hazırladıkları raporlarda hayli alçaltıcı ifadeler yer almıştı. Ermenilerin saygısızlığı, itibarlarının olmadığı, sahte belgeler yapması, ikili iş yapma becerileri gibi… Türklerin saldırıları karşısında Ermeniler, tekrar tekrar Müttefiklerin askeri müdahalesini istediler. Öyle bir hava yarattılar ki, eğer Batı onları bir kenara atmasaydı, onlar Türk ordusunu yenebilirdi, (s. 294)
İngiltere’nin, Ermenilerle uzun bir iş deneyimi vardı. Onlar belgelere dayanan Ermeni karakterinin doğru olduğunu iyi biliyorlardı.
ABD’de Ermenilerin maaşlı ajanları, onların kurdukları ve sponsorluğunu yaptıkları “Ermenici lobi”, Ermenilerin kurtuluşu için kendilerini taş duvara vuruyorlardı. Ermenistan’ın Bağımsızlığı için Amerika Komitesi (ACIA) Başkan Wilson’a gitgide artan bir nefret duygusu besliyordu. James Gerard ve Vahan Kardaşyan kendi özel çıkarları ve Ermeni sınırları sorunu ile ilgili olan görüşmeleri gereksiz yere haftalar boyu geriye bırakması ve yalnız 1920 yılı Kasım ayının sonlarında Müttefikleri ültimatom şeklinde bilgilendiren Başkanı çok sert biçimde eleştiriyorlardı.
(AClA)’nın üyesi olan James Gerard Kasım seçimlerden bir müddet önce Başkan Yardımcısı Bainbridge Colby’ye yazarak haber veriyordu ki, 1919 yılı kararı “Başkana Amerikan savaş gemisinin Batum’a gönderilmesi yetkisini vermişti. Gerard rica ediyordu ki, bu küçük yardım tedbiri şimdi uygulanmaya konulmalıdır.” (s. 301)
Faşistler ve Onların Ermeni Hayranları
1914 yılında Birinci Dünya Savaşı başladığı zaman kendilerini “Ermeniler” olarak adlandıran ve geniş bir coğrafyaya dağılmış olan adamlar 500 yıldan fazla emniyet ve güven içinde yaşadıkları Osmanlı Hükümetine vefasızlık edenlerin en önünde yer alıyorlardı. Ermeniler, Almanya ile savaşan muzaffer müttefiklerin en iyi dostu olduklarını iddia ediyorlardı.
Birinci Dünya Savaşı bittikten sonra 1920 yılının ortalarında onlar barış anlaşması yaparak Sovyet bloğuna girinceye kadar başkalarının toprakları üzerinde hak iddia eden, bu toprakları almak için terör eylemleri yapan bir ülkeydiler.
1930 yılının başlarında Adolf Hitler Almanya’da iktidara geldi. Bu Almanya, Ermenilerin 13 yıl önce savaştıklarını iddia ettikleri Almanya idi. Buna rağmen bu terörist ülke el altından tipik Ermeni hasleti ile faşist Almanya ile işbirliği yapmaya çalışıyordu. Çünkü onlara öyle geliyordu ki, faşistler yeni başlamış İkinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan galip çıkacaklardır. Silahsız Müslüman köylerine alçakça saldırılarıyla meşhur olan General Dro Kanayan, Almanya’nın yanında yer aldı. 812. Ermeni lejyonu ve Ermeni taburları kuruldu. Bu, yavaş yavaş büyüyerek yirmi bin askerlik güç olana kadar güçlenecekti. Bu kurulan tabur Kırım’da, Kuzey Kafkasya’da ve Hollanda’da Almanların yanında Müttefikler’e karşı savaşmıştır.
Bu taburun askerleri eski Ermeni savaş özelliklerini üzerinde barındıran özel emirleri yerine getiriyordu. Ermeni askerlerin büyük kısmından yeni istila edilmiş topraklarda polis gücü olarak yararlanılıyordu. Ermeni askerlerine, casusluk yaparak Almanların listesinde olan bütün Yahudileri ve diğer istenmeyen unsurları yakalama emri verilmişti. Bir defa binlerce adam ele geçirilmişti. Ermeniler onları milyonlarca Yahudinin toptan katlettiği için kötü bir şöhreti olan toplama kamplarına sürdüler.
1935 yılı Ağustosu’nda Ermeni gazeteleri Almanları öven makaleler yayımlıyordu. Ermeni basını Hitler’i övmekte birbiriyle yarışıyordu. Ermeni basınının ağzının suyunu akıta akıta Hitler ve faşistlere yaptığı övgülerine birkaç tanesini örnek olarak sunalım.
10 Mayıs 1935’te haftalık Hairenick gazetesi Romanya’nın başkenti Bükreş şehrinin belediye başkan yardımcısının beyanatını yayınladı:
“Ermeniler Yahudilerin kölesi olmamak için Romanya’ya yardım etmişlerdir.” Tarih öyle bir hafızaya sahiptir ki, faşistlerin işgal ettiği topraklarda Romanya Yahudi karşıtı cephenin ön sıralarında duruyordu.
9 Ağustos 1935’te Hairetıick gazetesi Ermenilerin ve Yunanlıların Selanik şehrinde birçok Yahudiyi öldürmelerinin sebebini, Yahudilerin servet toplamaya olan aşklarına bağlıyordu.
Haftalık Hairetıick gazetesinden geri kalmak istemeyen giinliik Hairetıick gazetesi Almanları korumaya başladı.
19 Ağustos 1906’da gazetede şöyle bir makale yayınlanmıştı:
Kronik hastalık gibi derin kökler salmış bu zehirli elementleri (Yahudileri) anlamak bazen zor oluyor. Bu adamlar (faşistler) onları anlamak için bilinmeyen metotlara başvurduklarında ise yapılanlara derhal devrimcilik deniyor. Cerrahide ameliyat zamanı kanın akması doğaldır. Bu durumda diktatörlük kurtarıcı rolünde görülmelidir.
Ertesi gün aynı gazete şöyle bir açıklamayı yayınladı:
En fanatik milliyetçi ve en ırki övücüler olan Yahudiler kendi ırklarını korumak için bütün dünyada beynelmilelcilik çevresi yaratmaya mecburdurlar. Toprakları işgal etmek için İngiltere savaş gemileri kullanıyorsa, Yahudiler de toprakları işgal etmek ve ekonomiyi ele geçirmek için beynelmilelciliği ve komünizmi silah gibi kullanmaktadırlar.
Hatırlayınız ki toplam 18 yıl önce Ermeniler İngiltere’den para, silah, teçhizat dileniyorlardı. Şimdi ise Almanya’nın çıkarı için o İngiltere’ye saldırıya geçmişlerdi.
17 Eylül 1936 tarihli Hairetıick gazetesi Hitler’i ve Almanları övüyordu:
“Ve sanki Herkül savaşlarından sonra Adolf Hitler iktidara geldi. O Almanların ırki özellikleri hakkında konuşarak kendi milli dünyasının fıskiyelerini püskürttü.”
25 Eylül 1936 tarihli gazetenin baş makalesinde “…Filistin’e ithal edilmiş Yahudilerin çeşidi hakkında iftihar etmeye değmez. Onlar kötü ahlakı olan şer güçlerdir…Ve her şeyden evvel Arap buhranının en başlıca sebebi Yahudilerin komünist faaliyetlerde bulunmalarıdır.” diye yazıyordu.
Hairenick gazetesinin bu yazısı Massaehusetts eyaletinin Boston şehrinde yaşayan Ermeniler tarafından İngilizce olarak da yayınlandı. Ermeni Devrimci Federasyonu arşivlerinin ilmi çalışmalar için araştırmacılara açık olmamasının sebebi belki de budur. Belki de Ermeniler akıllı ve gerçek tarihçilerin onların arşivlerinde çalışmasından korkuyorlar. Onların İkinci Dünya Savaşı sırasında faşist Almanya’ya yaptıkları faal yardımların ortaya çıkacağından korkuyorlar.
1942 yılında çok sayıda Ermeni genci seferber edilerek faşistlerin savaş çalışmalarının faal korumaları haline getirildi. Suren Bezzadyan, Pcıykar Hoassank (ışıklı anlamında) olarak isimlendirilen Ermeni nasyonal sosyalist hareketini kurarak ona başkanlık yaptı. Bu teşkilat bütün Avrupa’da ve Türkiye’de yaşayan genç Ermeniler arasında büyük şöhret sahibi oldu.
1942 yılının sonlarında bu teşkilat Ermeni Milli Şurasıyla birleşti. Bu yeni teşkilatı Ermeni Devrimci Federasyonunun birkaç lideri kurdu.
Ermeni generali Karekin Nezhdeh Ermeni Tseghagron teşkilatını kurdu. Sadece bu teşkilat vasıtasıyla genç Ermeniler faşist SS teşkilatına ve diğer elit Alman askeri kuvvetlerine katıldılar.
Faşist Almanya’nın Ermenileri koruması çok geniş bir alana yayılmıştı. Bu yüzden Almanya’da ve Fransa’da yaşayan birçok Ermeni 58. panzer birliklerine ve Wehrmacht’ın 10. ordusuna girmişlerdi.
Ermeni Devrimci Federasyonu’nun liderleri Alman istihbaratı ile çok sık ilişkiler içindeydiler.
Ermeniler Birinci Dünya Savaşı sırasında Ruslar için yaptıklarını, şimdi Almanya için yapıyorlardı:
Casusluk. 1941 yılının ortalarından 1944 yılının Eylülü’ne kadar Ermeniler Türkiye’de ve bütün Ortadoğu’da faşist Alman istihbaratı ile çok yakın işbirliği yaptılar. Ermeni gizli ajanları Alman propagandasını yapıyor ve Yahudileri takip ederek yakalanmaları için faşistlere yardım ediyorlardı.
Bir müddet sonra İkinci Dünya Savaşı’nın rengi değişti ve işler Müttefik askerlerinin galibiyetine doğru gelişmeye başladı. Ermeni bukalemunları Alman gemisinden atlayarak boğulan sıçanlar gibi yüzmeye başladılar. Artık Almanları suçluyorlardı. Sonra Müttefiklere doğru sürülmeye başladılar, aynı bir müddet önce Almanların karşısında yaptıkları gibi. Birkaç yıl önce Ermenilere Rus ve Türk topraklarını vermekle yükümlü olan aynı Müttefiklerdi.
Haddi hesabı olmayan Ermeni, faşistlerle ve Hitler’le gizli işbirliği halindeydi. Onlar Yahudilerin mahvedilmesine yardım ediyorlardı. Faşistlerin operasyonlarında ve savaş zamanı 1948 yılında soykırım olarak kabul edilen olayların gereğinin yapılmasında bu Ermeniler çok önemli ve kıymetliydi.
İkinci Dünya Savaşı sırasında faşist Almanya’ya Ermenilerin kitlesel olarak yardım ettiğine dair hiçbir şüphe yoktur. En ibret verici yan ise, Almanların savaşı kaybettiğini gördükleri anda Ermeniler intabana kuvvet Müttefiklerin saflarına doğru kaçmasıydı. Savaştan sonra Ermeniler 1915 yılında onların katledilmesi hakkında beyanat vermiş olan Hitler’i suçluyorlardı. Bu sahte bir iddiadır ve sahtekarlığın mayasında bile hiçbir belge yoktur.
Ermeniler 1930’ların başından 1944’e kadar Hitler’i ve Nazileri aktif olarak desteklediler. Savaştan sonra Ermeniler Hitler’in kendilerine karşı olduğu iddiasını öne sürdüler. Ancak Ermenilerin Hitler ve Nazilerle ilişkilerene ortaya koyan ve yanıtlanması gereken başka bir olgu daha vardır. Rutgers Üniversitesi Hukuk ve Din Bilimleri Dergisi, Nazi Savaş Suçluları davası sanıklarıyla ilgili yeni keşfedilen olguların yayınlandığı bir internet sitesi hazırlamaktadır. Bu basılı belgeler, Ermenilerin İkinci Dünya Savaşı süresince ve öncesinde, Adolf Hitler’e ve Almanlara yaptığı destek ve bağlılıkları hakkında hem soruları hem de yanıtları ortaya çıkarmıştır.
Elde olan belgeler açıkça, faşist Almanya’nın Hıristiyanlığı ve kiliseleri lağvetmek ve onları nasyonal sosyalistlerin siyasi hareketinin ihtiyaçlarına cevap veren saf ari ırkının diniyle değiştirmek istiyordu. Faşistler Kiliseleri süzgeçten geçiriyor ve tanınmış kilise hizmetkarlarını gözden düşürme yönünde iş yapıyorlardı. Hıristiyanların bir kısmı seçilip hapishanelere atılıyor, diğer kısmı ise öldürülüyordu. Hıristiyanlara yönelik bu faşist davranışlar Almanya’da da, Ermenilerin yardımı ile işgal edilmiş diğer ülkelerde de gizli bir şey değildi. Onlar açıkça Kilise ve Hıristiyanlığın düşmanıydılar.
Belki bu yüzdendir, Ermenistan etnik yönden kendi ülkesini temizlemiştir ve bu küçük ülkede yaşayanların %95’i saf ari Ermenidir. Belki de bu nedenle, bir milyondan fazla kişinin Ermenistan’dan göçmesinin nedenidir Belki bu yüzdendir ki, Ermenistan kendi Devlet Kilisesinden başka hiçbir Hıristiyan inancının ülkede yaşamasına izin vermemektedir.
Ermeniler, kendilerinin uydurduğu 1915 soykırımına göre Türkiye’nin özür dilemesinde ısrar etmektedir. İkinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan önce faşistleri koruduğu için ve binlerce Yahudinin öldürülmesinde katıldığına göre kendisinden özür dilemesi istenmeyen Ermenistan hangi yüzle Türkiye’den özür dilemesini istemektedir.
Niçin devletin kontrol ettiği resmi Ermeni kilisesi 1930 yılının başlarında ve 1940 yılındaki Hıristiyan karşıtı hareketleri lanetlememiştir.
Kendi geçmişteki yanlışlarını ve kötü emellerini itiraf etmek Ermeni hasletine ait değildir. Mesela korumasız Yahudileri ele geçirmekte ve onları kamplara taşımakta faşistlere yardım etseler de milyonlarca Yahu-dinin öldürülmesine katılmış olsalar da, bugün Ermeniler Washington’da Beyaz Saray’dan iki sokak ötede Ermeni Soykırımı müzesi kurmuşlar ve Ermeni Soykırımı Hatırası diye isimlendirilen bir anıt dikmişlerdir.
9 Kasım 2001’de Kanada’nın Toronto şehrinde o müzeyi planlayan ve kuran müze müdürü açıkça konuşmuştur:
“Bütün sokaklara yayılmış diasporamızı bu milyon dolarlık gayretimizin gerçekleştirilmesi ve parasının kazanılması etrafında birleştirmek bizim isteğimizdir.”
“Diaspora” sözünün kullanılmasına dikkat edin. Webster hazırladığı sözlükte “diaspora” sözünü şöyle açıklıyor. “Babil sürgününden sonra Yahudilerin her tarafa dağılması. Böylece dağılmış olan Yahudiler. Onların yerleştiği yerler. Aynı menşeye köke ve inanca dayanan insanların dağılması.”
Açıktır ki bu kendilerini büyük dehşetlerden azap çekmiş Yahudilerle karşılaştırma isteğidir. Halbuki onlar her çağda takibe, baskıya, zulme uğramış yahudilerdi. Bunların ise yalan, dolan ve talandan başka hiçbir şeyleri yoktur.
İkinci Dünya Savaşı sırasında Ermenilerin faşistleri desteklemesinden Amerika Ermenileri gurur duyuyorlardı. Bunu ispat edebilecek bir belge göstermek mümkündür; onlar para toplayarak ölmüş ve Amerika’da gömülmüş General Dro Kanayan’ın mezarını kazmış ve ona Ermenistan’da kahramanlara has olan bir defin merasimi yapmışlardır. Ermenistan gençlerini yetiştirmek için önder kadrolar hazırlayan bir yüksek okul kurarak ona General Dro Kanayan’ın adını vermiştir. Kaliforniya’daki Amerikan Ermeni birliği Dro adına kurulan Yüksek Okul’un masraflarını karşılamak için para toplamıştır. Acaba Ermenistan bu faşist Ermeni liderinin yaptıklarından kendi gençlerine neyi öğretmeyi amaçlamaktadır.
Kitap: ERMENİSTAN: TERÖRİST “HIRİSTİYAN” DEVLETİN SIRLARI
Yazar: Samuel E. Weems
27 Aralık 2010
KARA YANVAR – BLACK JANUARY
Rusun kan dökme hırsı özünde ırkçı kindir.
O bazen Korkunç İvan, bazen de Stalindir.
Binlerce mezbah, mezar humanistik iz midir?
Değişmeyen pratik Kızıl Rus faşizmidir?
Pek çok safdil, budala bu yalana aldandı;
Kızıl Rus faşızmini evrensel çağrı sandi;
Hiyanet ehli ise koşarak kiralandı.
Rusluğa direnenler şerefiyle ölmüştü.
20 January 1990: Black Face of the Red Terror in Azerbaijan
Helsinki Human Rights Watch has addressed how the Soviet brutal army intentionally crashed unarmed peaceful civilians under their tanks. According to its reports, “among the most heinous violations of human rights during the Baku incursions were the numerous attacks on medical personnel, ambulances and even hospitals”. As a result of illegal entering of troops into Baku city and regions of the republic 133 men were killed, 611 men – wounded, 841 men illegally arrested and 5 missing. Among the victims was seven year-old boy, sixteen year-old girl, eighty years-old man, a young doctor shot in ambulance while helping another victim, and many other innocent civilians. The soldiers sacked and burnt 200 houses and apartments, 80 automobiles, including ambulance cars, the state and personal property at the result of punitive measures carried out with unprecedented brutality.  The bloodiest acts of state terrorism and crime were carried out by the Soviet regime against Azerbaijani people on January 20. This massacre has been, from that time on, mentioned as the “Black January”.
Looking to the background of the massacre committed by the Soviet troops, it was clearly understood that this military operation was totally planned and calculated act. This aggression against Azerbaijani people fulfilled step by step. Before the troops arrived in Baku, the Azeri Supreme Soviet and other political bodies were paralyzed; weapons were gathered from militia employees under the pretext of population disarmament. The Soviet authorities exploit the power block of televisions and stopped the broadcasting in Azerbaijan on January 19 in order to deprive population from getting information. Foreigners were not allowed to enter to the city. Western reporters were banned from traveling to Baku to cover the events. Soviet Defense and Interior Minister, and military officials came to Baku some days before, for realization of this calculated terrorist attack. Soviet reservist, which was prepared for the special mission, had been mobilized and sent to the region exactly for fighting. Most of the Soviet militants were the orphan people prepared for the special mission.
At this point, it would be better to look at the reasons for Soviet intervention to Azerbaijan in detail. Armenia tried to use this event for their benefit, and argued that the main purpose of the Soviet Army intervention to Azerbaijan was to stop the pogrom against the Armenian population in Baku led by the Azeri people. Soviet leader M. Gorbachev used this argument to justify Soviet intervention to Azerbaijan. The military contingent entered to Baku was informed that, you are going to protect the rights of Russians and Armenians, which was violated by the local population. But it was explicitly disinformation. The real face of the Soviet attack was totally different.
At that time, Azerbaijan was subjected to aggression from neighboring Armenia. Armenia violated the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan, which was resulted the occupation of the Azerbaijan territory, and tried to unite Nagorno Karabakh to Armenia. And Moscow was supporting Armenians’ demands on this issue. In March 1988 the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Council of Ministers of the USSR, adopted a special decision for taking Nagorno-Karabakh away from the Azerbaijani SSR. Nagorno-Karabakh was granted exclusive rights, and a further step was taken by the Centre to remove the Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous region from the control of Azerbaijan. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR published a statute on 12 January 1989 on the introduction of a special form of administration in the autonomous region. The administration in the autonomous region of Nagorno-Karabakh was entrusted to a specially created committee under the chairmanship of Arkady Volsky. This effectively signified the removal of Nagorno-Karabakh from the control of the Azerbaijani SSR. The Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR adopted on the 1st of December 1989 a decision to annex Nagorno-Karabakh to the Armenian SSR.
Beginning from 1988 there was ethnic cleansing against Azerbaijani population in Armenia and West part of Azerbaijan by Armenian military groups. Azerbaijanis living in Armenia were expelled from their own homes with unprecedented brutality and many of them, including old people, women and children, were killed. Following all of these events during that time, an Azeri national movement emerged against the background of Soviet dual policy and withdrawal of the Azeri population from their historical territory. In 1988, Azerbaijan became one of the first Soviet Republics to adopt the declaration of sovereignty, and this was a clear manifestation of independence from the Soviet point of view. The invasion of Baku by the Soviet Army was clearly to stop the dissolution of the Communist regime, crush any opposition in Azerbaijan’s bid for independence, and preserving status quo. In the fall of 1989, the national independence movement had reached an incredible momentum with hundreds of thousands of people demonstrating for the ideals of independence and territorial integrity. For this reason, the Soviet argument to justify military intervention to Baku was just pretext.
Human Rights Watch report, entitled “Black January in Azerbaijan”, clearly states: “Indeed, the violence used by the Soviet Army on the night of January 19-20 was so out of proportion to the resistance offered by Azerbaijanis as to constitute an exercise in collective punishment. Since Soviet officials have stated publicly that the purpose of the intervention of Soviet troops was to prevent the ouster of the Communist-dominated government of the Republic of Azerbaijan by the nationalist-minded, noncommunist opposition, the punishment inflicted on Baku by Soviet soldiers may have been intended as a warning to nationalists, not only in Azerbaijan, but in the other Republics of the Soviet Union.”
The report of Human Right Watch on the 20 January events shows that there was no any pogrom against Armenians in Baku. It was also reported that in the list of the innocent victims of the Black January there were people from the different community of Azerbaijan, such as Russians, Jews, and also others. The Soviet argument that the Russian troops entered to Azerbaijan for stopping so-called violation against the Soviet citizen had not justification because Azeri people who died at the result of Armenian pogroms were also Soviet citizens, and Soviet army did not intervene to Armenia for stopping pogroms against Azeris. Soviet mass media did not even mention that tragedy, and crime passed over in silence.
Also before that event happened in Azerbaijan, the brutal military attack of the Soviet troops to Almaty in 1986, to Tbilisi in 1989, and lately to Lithuanian capital Vilnius in 1991 prove that the 20 January event was exactly because of the political reason. It appears the last breathe of the Giant, as that era was the decline of the Soviet Empire. Beginning from the Soviet occupation to Afghanistan in the 1980s, the Soviets began a downfall from its world power position. Followingly, some nationalist movements suddenly emerged in the Soviet Union.
The Black January was a turning point in the history of Azerbaijan. This massacre did not stop the people of Azerbaijan from continuing their struggle until the achievement of the national independence of the country. Despite being subjected to military, political and moral aggression, Azerbaijani national movement succeeded to stand against Soviet challenge, and Soviet troops eventually had to withdrawn from Baku. Subsequently Azerbaijan declared its independence on October 18, 1991. With the Decrees of the President of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev of December 16, 1999 all the victims of the crackdown were awarded the title “Martyrs of January 20.”
Each year the people of Azerbaijan commemorate the Black January and pay tribute to the memory of the victims of this tragedy. Nineteen years pass from those events. Azerbaijan is prepared to commemorate one of its black, but pride day in its history. In that day millions of Azerbaijani visit the Martyrs Avenue. The Martyrs, who died in that day, are among the first, who sacrificed their lives for freedom that Azerbaijan nowadays enjoy and those heroes will never be forgotten. The sons and daughters of the Motherland killed at that terrible night have written a brightest page in history of Azerbaijan, and paved the way to national liberation and independence of the Azeri people. 1. Elin Suleymanov, “Remembering “Black January”: a Decade After” http://sunse.jinr.ru/~mehdiyev/black_jan.html 2. Sevda Mehraliyeva, “JANUARY 20, 1990 – Day of Mourning and Pride for Azerbaijan” Azernews, 01.26.1997, http://www.atmg.org/January20.html 3. This information was taken from the Press Release, made in 20 January 2005, by the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the United Nation. “The Black January: 15th Anniversary of the Soviet Invasion of Baku against the National Independence Movement in Azerbaijan”. http://www.un.int/azerbaijan/info/info/PR-PDF/01.pdf